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Hitler's Germany

Junior Cert History
by

Fintan O'Mahony

on 24 October 2016

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Transcript of Hitler's Germany

Hitler's Germany
The Weimar Republic 1919-1933
1919
German politicans meet in
Weimar
to set up a new Constitution
Germany declared itself a republic
Huge problems lay ahead
Politicians were unpopular for accepting the
Treaty of Versailles
High unemployment, high prices, food shortages and huge war debt
A number of groups tried to overthrow the government
The Stresemann Era
Gustav Stresemann was the Finance Minister from 1923 to 1929
He decided it would be best to continue paying reparations
and stay on friendly terms with the Allies
Stresseman died in 1929, The Great Depression was triggered off by The Wall Street Crash
The depression forced people to seek more extreme measures to solve their problems.
Germans turned to
Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party
Adolf Hitler's rise to power
Born Brannau, Austria, 1889
Won the Iron Cross for bravery in WW1
Shocked when Germany surrendered
Believed Germany had been
'betrayed'
by Communists, Socialists and Jews
Joined the
Nazi Party
in 1919, quickly became it's leader
The
Nazi Party
developed into a military style organisation
The
SA (Brownshirts)
protected Nazi meetings and broke up meetings of other parties
The
SS
were Hitler's personal bodyguard
In
1923
the Nazi launched the
Munich Putsch (uprising)
In failed, Hitler was jailed
In prison he wrote
Mein Kampf
, his autobiography
He was released in 1924
He decided to use constitutional methods to gain power
He was a skilled organiser and public speaker and soon built
a loyal and united party
Support for the Nazis grew as the depression deepened
Hitler in power
Hitler became
German Chancellor

in
1933
In
March 1933
the
Enabling Act
was passed which allowed him to rule without parliament
All
political parties were banned
, except the Nazis
The Gestapo (secret police)
arrested opponents and sent them to concentration camps
Strikes were banned
,
Trade Unions replaced by the Labour Front
1934
Hitler combined the offices of Chancellor and President into one title
The Fuhrer
Germany was now a totalitarian state
Domestic policy
Hitler ruthlessly dealt with members of the SA who disagreed with him
On the
Night of the Long Knives
over 300 of his own party members were killed

Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels
only allowed favourable news to be published or broadcast. Books and paintings were burned if they were unfavourable to Nazis. Gigantic rallies were held each year at Nuremberg.
Nazi and German Youth
School books were rewritten from a Nazi point of view
Mein Kampf was used as a textbook
The purity of the German race was stressed as essential
Teachers who did not co-operate were dismissed
Hitler Youth groups prepared young people to be good Nazis
The economy
Unemployment was reduced with large scale public works, e.g. houses, motorways
Production of cars expanded, new jobs provided in aircraft, tanks and arms production
1928
1.4 million unemployed
1932
5.6 million unemployed
1938
1.2 million unemployed
The Jews
The hatred of Jews was central to Nazi beliefs
April 1933
SA organised a boycott of Jewish businesses. Many Jews were fired from their jobs
Nov 1935
Nuremberg Laws were passed: Jews lost the right to German citizenship the right to vote, the right to marry non-Jews. They were expected to wear the Star of David always
Nov 1938
Kristallnacht, Night of Broken Glass. Massive destruction of Jewish
homes and businesses was carried out
Many emigrated, but could bring nothing with them. The remainder were sent to
Concentration Camps
Foreign Policy
Hitler's foreign policy was based on three main aims
to
get rid of the Treaty of Versailles
to
unite all Germans
to create
Lebensraum (living space)
for Germans in the East
Dismantling Versailles
The Treaty gave France control of the
Saar
region, in
1934
in a
referendum
they voted to return to Germany
Hitler attempted to unify Germany and Austria in
1935
(
Anchluss
), but Mussolini's opposition stopped him
Despite a ban on increasing the size of his army and navy, he made a deal with Britain which allowed to start rebuilding his navy. The German army also began to grow
In
1936
German troops marched into the
Rhineland

while others were distracted with Abyssinia
Then in
1938
the
Anchluss
was completed when a Nazi Chancellor was appointed and he invited Germans in
Causes of World War II
The Treaty of Versailles was unfair to Germany
and the Nazis would fight to get rid of it (
Rhineland, built up army and airforce- Luftwaffe
)
The League of Nations failed
to preserve world peace. Hitler left then signed
The Rome-Berlin Axis with Mussolini
Hitler's foreign policy was agressive as he sought
Lebensraum
(
Anchluss with Austria
).
Later in
1938
Hitler demanded the Sudetenland, part of Czechoslovakia. He then took the rest of the country in
1939
Appeasement
(giving Hitler what he wanted, hoping he stopped) was intended to reduce the risk of war, Hitler saw it as a sign of weakness
The Nazi-Soviet Pact
decided to
divide Poland
between them.

France and Britain prepared for war
The Germans invaded Poland
1st September 1939
Anchluss with Austria
Full transcript