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By: Raymon Bains, Renato Berrios, Melanie Dela Cruz, Ciara Milicevic, Justina Chemello, Taylor Krochak & Jay Letts

Raymon Bains

on 3 July 2015

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Transcript of Sikhism

How are the Sikh's beliefs expressed or practiced?
Place of Worship
During the time of the early Gurus, places of worship were referred to as dharamsalas. As the Sikh population grew, Guru Hargobind introduced the word "Gurdwara."
Gurdwara means the "House of the Guru," and is the doorway to the house of God
It's a place where Sikh's can gather and hear the Guru speak or sing hymns
Gurdwara's normally consist of two halls/rooms and has 3 functions:
Kirtan: Singing of hymns from the Guru Granth Sahib
Katha: Reading of Guru Granth Sahib and explanations
Langar: Free community kitchen for all visitors of all religions
Finding Meaning within One's Religion
Historical Evolution
How does their religion affect
their culture?
The cross is a common symbol associated to the faith of Christians. Many Christians have their own crosses at home. The Crucifix is an important symbol in Christianity due to it's representation of Jesus' crucifixion. Just as we Christians have symbols associated to our religion, Sikh's also have symbols that allow them to connect with their God.
The Five K's
There are five items of dress & physical appearance given by Guru Gobind Singh that give Sikh's a unique identity symbolizing discipline and spirituality.
steel or iron bracelet
worn by all initiated Sikhs
Identifies a Sikh as being dedicated to their religious order
Uncut hair which is covered by a dastaar (turban)
Symbolic of holiness & the turban symbolizes leadership
Belief System
Supreme Being - Catholic
Supreme Being
Waheguru is the supreme being of Sikhism
People worship and pray to Waheguru, who believes the whole human race is one
Guru Nanak is the human form of Waheguru
Sikhism vs. Christianity
Life and Death
There is a divine spark, which is part of Waheguru, in each person, and this spark is taken back to join Waheguru when a person is finally released from the cycle of rebirth.
Sikhs believe there are 8.4 million forms of life and that many souls travel through various forms before they reach Waheguru - when someone dies their soul is reborn, therefore they believe in reincarnation.
Only humans know the difference between right and wrong, so it is only when a soul is in a human being that there is a chance of the cycle being broken.
The Guru Granth Sahib (sacred text) states the body is just clothing for the soul and is discarded at the end.
Basic Beliefs of Sikhism:
: work hard, make an honest living, free of deception or fraud
: use your hard earned living to help those in need, who may be less fortunate than yourself; uplift your fellow beings
: always bear God's message in mind and meditate on God's name
Actions and the consequences of those actions decide whether a soul can be set loose from the cycle
This freedom from the cycle of reincarnation is called mukti
People strive to eventually meet Waheguru, but mutki prevents them from doing this
System of Judgement
Two things can happen after death...
First, if you meditate to God and purifying your soul by getting rid of lust, anger, greed, attatchment, and ego, you merge back with God and your cycle of life and death is gone forever.
Or if you do not worship God and realize Him, you will be reincarnated
If you were on the right path to God but did not purify your soul within the lifetime you had on Earth, you will be given more chances in human form to become closer to God.
If you have not made any effort to love God and purify your soul, you will end up wandering through the 8.4 million species.
Sikhism was founded by Guru Nanak (who lived from 1469 to 1539) in the late 15th century C.E. in the Punjab region (of what today is India and Pakistan). According to Sikh beliefs, the same spirit inhabited Guru Nanak and his nine successors.
At Sultanpur, Guru Nanak received a vision to preach the way to enlightenment and Waheguru.
He is responsible for saying
"There is no Hindu, there is no Muslim"
which has since become one of the pillars of Sikhism.
He taught a strict monotheism (one God). Guru Nanak rejected idol worship, and the Hindu concept of caste (hereditary classes of society).
Guru Nanak and Panth (his followers) later built the first Sikh temple at Katapur.
The Story of how Sikhism Evolved
Life and Death - Catholic
Spirituality - Catholic
Beliefs: Holy Trinity
System of Judgement - Catholic
God is the Supreme Being of Catholicism
Jesus is God's son who came to Earth as the human form of God, just like Guru Nanak is the human form of Waheguru
God forgives all of our sins, and has died for us
God has a plan for all of us
Do not believe in reincarnation
When people have lived and fulfilled the life of God, they will go to heaven, meet Him, and live with God for eternity
If we have sinned without seeking forgiveness and do not believe in the spirit of God, we will go to Hell and be with the devil for eternity
Catholic's live by the 10 commandments
When you are baptized you officially become part of the Catholic Church
The Bible is the word of God
The Holy Trinity tells us there is one God in three persons
God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit.
"One morning Nanak did not return from bathing in the river. He was presumed drowned, and yet his body was not found. Three days later Nanak returned to the village, but remained silent for a day. When he finally spoke, he proclaimed:
"There is neither Hindu nor Muslim so whose path shall I follow? I shall follow God's path. God is neither Hindu nor Muslim and the path which I follow is God's." (Cole and Sambhi,
The Sikhs
, page 9)
When he explained what had happened to him, Nanak said that he had been escorted to the court of God, who gave him a cup of nectar and told him:
"This is the cup of the adoration of God's name. Drink it. I am with you. I bless you and raise you up. Whoever remembers you will enjoy my favour. Go, rejoice in my name and teach others to do so. I have bestowed the gift of name upon you. Let this be your calling." (Cole and Sambhi,
The Sikhs
, page 10)"
Historical Evolution of Catholicism
ceremonial sword symbolizing readiness to protect the weak, and defend against injustice and persecution
Exemplifies the warrior character of a Sikh
small wooden comb
symbolizes cleanliness & order
as Sikh's comb their hair daily, it is believed that they should comb their mind with the Guru's wisdom
cotton boxer shorts
symbolizes self control & chastity
Religious Rituals &Teachings
Celebrations, Feast Days & Holy Days
Roles of the Community
A Sikh's spirituality is centered around the need to understand and to become one with God as they believe in the law or Karma and rebirth. In order to get out of this cycle, they must achieve complete union with God.Due to their religious beliefs, their culture has altered to follow three primary duties:
Pray (Nam Japna)
Work (Kirt Karna)
Give (Vand Chhakna)

To get close to God, they must focus on God rather than themselves which will allow them to reach a state called mukti (liberation).
Given through the grace of God; it is not something that humans can earn, but something that God does to human beings.

Sikh's believe that God isn't pleased when they do not pay attention to others and only focus on their religion, so instead of turning away from ordinary life to get close to God they instead use their life as a means of getting closer
Can be done by serving others everyday (devoting their lives to service)
By doing so, one lets go of their ego and pride

Due to their religion, they also try to avoid the five vices that make people self centered: lust, covetousness & greed, attachments to things in this world, anger and pride.
Religion also plays a role in the culture of Christians as we try to avoid sin.
Uphold the Golden Rule by treating others the way we wish to be treated
Charity - Just as Jesus gave to us, we return by helping those in need
Follow the 10 commandments such as honouring your father & mother, not using God's name in vain, not committing murder, adultery, etc.
Geographic Origins
Just as Sikh's wish to get closer to their god, we also get closer to ours through prayer. While some Christian's choose to pray at home, our main place of worship occurs in the Church. At church, Christian's can partake in services to go and pray, make confessions and talk to God. One can also get baptized and married in church.

This is the ceremony of initiation into the Sikh religion (Amrit ceremony). This ceremony is held in the presence of the Guru Granth Sahib. It is conducted by five baptized Sikhs (called Panj Pyare) who wear the Sikh symbols. These five prepare the Amrit (holy water) and recite the five Banis, and stir the water with a double-edged sword, called a Khanda. After preparation, the Amrit is drunk by the initiation candidates and then sprinkled on their eyes and hair. The ceremony concludes with eating the ceremonial karah parshad.

Marriage – Anand Karaju:
Sikh marriage is called Anand Karaj, meaning “blissful union”. They also take place in the presence of the Guru Granth Sahib and consists of the couple revolving around Guru Granth Sahib four times as the marriage hymns are being recited. Sikhs practice monogamy, and as well, widows or widowers may remarry.

Naming of Children:
When a child is born, the baby is taken to a Gurdwara for a naming ceremony. Prayers are recited for the newborn and following that, the Guru Granth Sahib is opened at random; the hymn on the opened page is recited. The first letter of the first word of the hymn is selected as the first letter of the child’s name. Kaur, meaning princess, is added after a girl’s name and Singh, meaning lion, is added after a boy’s name.

Daily prayer:
In order to achieve divine consciousness in all aspects of their daily lives, their search is deeply rooted in set daily prayers in the early morning, at sunset and before sleep.
There is only one God and He is the same God for all religions.
There are cycles of births and deaths before the soul reaches the human form.
The goal of our life is to lead an exemplary existence so that one may merge with God. He should be remembered at all times and Sikhs should practice living a virtuous and truthful life as well as maintain a balance between their spiritual and moral obligations
The true path to salvation does not require the renunciation of the world or celibacy, but living the life of a householder, making an honest living and avoiding temptation and sin.
Sikhs condemn rituals such as fasting, visiting places of pilgrimage, superstitions, worship of the dead, and idol worship
People of different races, religions or sex are equal in the eyes of God. Women can participate in any religious function or perform any Sikh ceremony or lead the congregation in prayer.

Each ritual of Sikhism is held in front of the Guru Granth Sahib, and in Christianity we have the same requirement; Within marriage and baptism, it is in the presence and eyes of the lord. These rituals, in both Sikhism and Christianity are intimate and help us become closer to God. And just as in Sikhism, we also concede in the ritual of daily prayer, as it is seen as reminder of our relationship with God.
The basic teachings of Christianity (from the sayings of Jesus):
love one another as I have loved you
forgive one another
The Prodigal Son (the lost son) is always welcome in his Father's House
God is Love; turn to God with love for God; this will make God present in your midst and in your life.
The Kingdom of Heaven is within you. Seek first the Kingdom of Heaven, and all else will be added unto you.

The teachings of Sikhism and Christianity both outline the expectations of the followers of each respected religion. In this way, followers of either religion are remaining faithful by following these guidelines and are shaping their lives to fit these guidelines.
Gurupurbs: Marking of important anniversaries relating to birth and death of a Guru. This includes a full recitation of the Guru Granth Sahib and the singing of hymns and Sikh lectures.
-Guru Nanak's Birthday (usually in November)
-Guru Gobind Singh's Birthday (end December or early January)
-The Birthday of the Khalsa (mid-April)
-Guru Arjan's Martyrdom (usually in June)
-Guru Teg Bahadur's Martyrdom (usually in October)

Vaisakhi: Celebrated on the 13th April. It is the celebration of the founding of the Khalsa Order and Sikh nation. A religious street procession often marks this event.
Bandi Chhor Divasi: In 1619 the Golden Temple was lit up with many lights to welcome home and celebrate the release of Guru Hargobind from imprisonment in Gwalior fort. Since then, this annual celebration has been continued with lamps being lit outside gurdwaras with sweets distributed to all.
Maghi: Sikhs visit gurdwaras and listen to kirtan to commemorate the martyrdom of the Forty Immortals. It occurs on the first day of Maghar Sangrant, on January 14.
Hola Mohalla: An annual festival of thousands held at Anandpur Sahib in memory of Guru Gobind Singh. The holiday is celebrated with mock battles and displays of horsemanship and skills with the sword. As well, processions with the Sikh flag and the Guru Granth Sahib take place.

The celebrations, Feast Days, and Holy Days of Christianity.

ADVENT SEASON: Preparation for Christmas. It is time also for looking towards Jesus' second coming. A season of expectation.
CHRISTMAS: Celebration of Jesus' birth. The festival lasts twelve days and ends with the EPIPHANY. It emphasizes incarnation.
LENT: Forty-day preparation for Easter. It relates to the 40 days Jesus spent fasting before beginning his ministry. In addition:
HOLY WEEK, which begins with PALM SUNDAY, commemorates Jesus' entry into Jerusalem. HOLY THURSDAY commemorates the Last Supper and of the Eucharist in Catholic, Orthodox and some Protestant churches. GOOD FRIDAY is the memorial of Jesus' death by crucifixion.
EASTER SUNDAY: Celebrates the Resurrection.
ASCENSION THURSDAY: Forty days after Easter and it celebrates Jesus' ascension to heaven.
PENTECOST SUNDAY: Ten days after the Ascension, it celebrates the gift of the Holy Spirit to the apostles and other disciples. It marks the birth of the Church.
In celebrating religious ceremonies, festivals, and holy days, everyone a part of the religious community gathers together for worship. So in both Sikhism and Christianity, people are coming together to share their faith and worship. It is not only to become closer to their respective Gods, but to become closer to one another through ceremonies of worship.
Men: They are required to model positive behaviour, raise and inspire their children, love their spouse, and lend a helping hand to their parents. What makes a man successful is not his wealth or land, but by being a good husband and father.
Women: They are held equal to men, and as such, their requirements do not differ greatly from their counterparts. They must model positive behaviour, raise their children lovingly, as well as love their spouse, and also lend support to their parents. Similarly, they are allowed to partake in social, religious, and political affairs.
Family units: The mother is given the most important role after giving birth, as she is considered the child’s first teacher, and must appropriately teach them the way of Sikhism for the first few years. The father is required to share in all the chores so that the mother is uninterrupted in her caring for her child. The grandparents as well, provide support to the mother in the early portion of the baby’s life, or whenever the mother requires it.
Conclusion (as a whole): Sikhs must strive to follow the Guru’s teachings, which include principles of benevolence, honesty, charity, and justice. The core of their beliefs is equality, and part of their existence is to help morally redeem the world in working for equality and justice. As mentioned before, the status and importance of a Sikh in the eyes of a higher being is not based on wealth, but by living a life of propriety.

The roles of men and women in Christianity differ to that of Sikhism. Women were expected to voluntarily submit to their husbands and this voluntary submission was seen as an expression of love to God for following his design. Men on the other hand, are called to love their wives sacrificially as Christ loved the church, and to be the leader in a relationship of two equals.
In terms of family units, the fathers are given the responsibility for the leadership of their children, while mothers are urged to be “workers at home”, meaning managers of the household. Their priority is meant to be their home and their children.
Conclusion (as a whole): Much like Sikhism, all followers of Christianity are expected to follow the principles of the religion and "God's design" or his "plan" that he has set before us. In both cases, by fulfilling our respective roles, we are becoming closer to God.
Sikhism was founded by the first guru, Guru Nanak (1469-1539) and 10 other gurus,
Guru Nanak
Founded Sikhism. (1469-1539)
Guru Nanak spent a total of 24 years of his spiritual expeditions throughout India and the Middle East, and is believed to have travelled a total of 28000km by foot. Everywhere he went, he practiced and preached the dogma of peace, humanity, equality and community, with a direct simplicity that carried his message on to spark the most radical, yet overlooked social revolution of the century.
Guru Angad
Second Guru (1504 – 1552)
Guru Amar Das
Third Guru (1479 – 1574)
Guru Ram Das
Fourth Guru (1534 – 1581)
Guru Arjan
Fifth Guru (1563 - 1606)
Guru Har Gobind
Sixth Guru (1596 – 1644)
Guru Har Rai
Seventh Guru (1630 – 1661)
Guru Har Krishan
Eigth Guru (1656 – 1664)
Guru Tegh Bahadur
Ninth Guru (1621-1675)
Guru Gobind Singh
Tenth Guru (1666 – 1708).
Guru Gobind Singh Ji infused the spirit of both sainthood and soldier in the minds and hearts of his followers to fight oppression in order to restore justice, peace, righteousness (Dharma) and to uplift the down-trodden people in this world.
Guru Granth Sahib
(Final and last guru, eternal living guru)
The text remains the holy scripture of the Sikhs, regarded as the teachings of the Ten Gurus. The role of Guru Granth Sahib as a source or guide of prayer is pivotal in Sikh worship.

Sikhism is one of the world’s youngest major world religion, with close to 23 million followers found worldwide.
Sikhism was revealed to Guru Nanak overs 500 years ago in Punjab India.
In Canada the Sikh population is near 470,000 followers. That is 1.4% of Canada population that follows Sikhism.
In Alberta there is close to 54,000 individuals who follow Sikhism. This is 1.5% of Alberta’s Population that follow Sikhism.
In Edmonton there are close to 9200 followers of Sikhism. This is 1.4% of Edmonton’s population that followers Sikhism.
In Christianity The first leader was Jesus of Nazareth.
The current leader of Christianity is Pope Francis. The pope is the unifier of the people of God
Catholics believe they should live without sin and ask God for forgiveness if necessary
Catholics must follow the Golden Rule, the Ten Commandments, and what the Bible says in order to live an everlasting life
Christianity is the world’s largest religion by the number followers it has.
Christianity is a monotheistic religion that was founded by the followers of Jesus of Nazareth.
Christianity has close to 2.2 Billion followers. This is 1/3 of the world’s population.
In Canada there are close to 22 million individuals who are Christian. This is close to 67% of Canada population.
In Alberta there are 2.1 million Christians. This is nearly 60% of Alberta’s population.
In Edmonton there are close to 400,000 Christians, which makes up close to 50% of Edmonton’s population.
On the Third Day, Jesus rose from the dead...
To find meaning in ones religion it takes commitment and strength.
In Sikhism their main type of literature is called the Guru Granth Sahib, meaning the Gurus word
Many Sikhs find meaning in their religion by the traditions that they have. One of the biggest is on the day that they are baptized
There are very important traditions that they have to follow. On the morning that they are baptized they have to have a bath and wash their hair.
When they go to get baptized they have to have the five articles of faith(small turban,small comb,iron bracelet,undergarment,and a small knife) on them. When the baptism happens it is in the presence of five loved ones and the Guru Granth Sahibil. The loved ones are also wearing the five articles of faith.
Have to have commitments to be baptized to even if they have to sacrifice ones self for the value of the truth.
Punjab is located in India, and is where Sikhism was founded.
16 million individuals in Punjab follow Sikhism.
For Christians, the sacred text is the Holy Bible
split into two parts: the Old Testament (Hebrew Scriptures), and the New Testament (writing about Jesus Christ and the early church)
The Old Testament is viewed as foundational, authoritative, and relevant, and is read and cherished by Christians along with the New Testament
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