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D-Day: Invasion of Normandy
Transcript of D-Day: Invasion of Normandy
in the history of warfare! Normandy, 6:30 AM Over 160,000 Soldiers
(AKA: Allied Troops)
[ Free French, Poland, Belgium,
Czechoslovakia, Greece, Netherlands ] Landing of Allied infantry and armored divisions on the coast of France PHASES Over 13,000 paratroopers were dropped behind enemy lines 12 A.M.- 2 A.M. Preparation Convinced Hitler that landings would occur to the North of the Pas-de-Calais Midget submarines of the Combined Operations Pilotage Parties (COPP) secretly visit the Normandy beaches to take sand samples (sand on beaches support weight of tanks) Across Europe, air crafts began to drop weapons and supplies to the Resistance (fight back against occupying Germans) COSSAC (Chief of Staff, Supreme Allied Commander) creates drafted plan Allies conducted a large-scale deception campaign designed to mislead the Germans about the intended invasion target Codename: Operation Overload Executed by Land, Air, and Sea elements
under direct British command The beginning of the end of World War II Kayla Ratner
Brendan DeMartine Thank You! 195,700 allied naval and merchant navy personnel Over 5,000 ships Took place along a 50-mile stretch of the Normandy Coast Utah Omaha Gold Juno Sword Ended on June 30, 1944 Resulted in the Allied liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germany's control Goal:
End Nazi control (Adolf Hitler) in Western Europe By late August, all of northern France had been liberated By the next spring, the Allies had defeated the Germans EVENTS LEADING UP TO D-DAY 1939 1941 1942 1943 1940 September: WWII begins as Britain and France declare war on Germany following Germany’s invasion of Poland. May – June: German invasion of France, Belgium, Holland, Norway and Denmark. December: Japan attacks the US fleet at Pearl Harbour, inflicting serious damage and involving the US directly in the WWII. Germany declares war on the USA, bringing American into the war in Europe. April: The build-up of US forces in Britain begins. January: Allies agree that conditions are not right for D-Day to occur. Instead, captured Sicily. Formed Anglo-American staff for planning. March: Anglo-American staff is under control of Lieutenant General Morgan October: British Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay is appointed as the Allied naval commander December: US General Dwight D. Eisenhower is appointed as Supreme Allied Commander (overall charge) 1944 D-Day! Allied Air Forces made air raids on Germany, causing them to lose men and aircraft (makes army weak so they can't fight back on D-Day) Raid French Railway network (Germans’ won't be able to transport troops and supplies) 10-mile strip of Britain's coastline becomes a restricted zone. Royal Navy begins a campaign of mine-laying off German bases along Channel coast. (prevent German motor torpedo boats from coming out to attack Allied shipping) Why was it significant from both Allied and Axis perspectives?
Axis: want to maintain control over Western Europe. It is critical in order to defeat the allies. The Germans felt that they had to keep control over France because if they had won, they would have a year to build up their army and prepare for war with the Allies.
Allied: don't want the nazi's to have control over Western Europe. If victorious, it would be a huge turning point in the war.
Both sides have to fight to achieve the goal. August: Russians and Germans sign a pact agreeing to not invade each other's borders. Stalin and Hitler secretly plan to divide Poland. July: Battle of Britain http://cache.eb.com/new-multimedia/mp3/normay265.mp3 Began at 3:00 with an aerial bombardment
of the German coastal defenses and artillery sites. At 7:30, first units reached the beach The first wave suffered 50% casualties. The use of armor was successful, in some instances actually landing ahead of the infantry (helped to clear a path inland). 30,000 Canadians had been successfully landed (further into France than any other force) 25,000 men were landed, on the beach. The 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division advanced almost to the outskirts of Bayeux. The most heavily fortified beach. Difficulties in navigation caused the majority of landings to drift eastwards (missing assigned sectors). 2 out of 16 ships actually landed. The official record stated that "within 10 minutes, every officer and sergeant had been killed or wounded." 197 out of 23,000 men landed. Currents pushed the 4th Infantry Division troops to the southeast. American troops were able to go inward much quicker than expected. Fitting in with the larger allied war effort, If the Allies failed, they would have not only lost an enormous amount of men and resources, but would have been open to a large scale attack from the Nazis.
Had it not been successful, it could have doomed the Allies' chances of winning WWII U.K. U.K. U.S.A. U.S.A. CANADA Casualties:
About 10,000 (2,500 dead)
British - 2,700
Canadians - 946
Americans - 6,603
15,000 - 20,000 French civilians died
Axis: 9,000 (4,000 dead)
Allied lost far less troops percentage wise (attacked in greater numbers) Utah Omaha Gold Juno Sword 4th Div. 1st Div. 50th Div. 3rd Div. 3rd Div. 1 A.M.- 4 A.M. Allies fake invasion in Pas de Calais (to distract) 3 A.M. 300 planes dropped 13,000 bombs on German defenses in the landing sector 5 A.M. Naval bombardment preceded the invasion