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Gender Relations

UTS International Studies Assessment Task

Julia Maure

on 29 June 2014

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Transcript of Gender Relations

Social Construction of Gender
Your parents didn't give you
clothes when you were born?
were encouraged to play with footballs rather than barbies?
had to take 'the pill'?
IMAGINE: the only difference between
was our anatomy?
Consequently, would it be right to say that the notion of gender is socially constructed?
The differing qualities between
aren't inherent by nature but are a manifestation of society.
Social Construction of Gender: A process by which gender differences are taught and reinforced in social interaction within social institutions (e.g., the family, schools, religious settings, workplaces, etc.). Thus, gender goes well beyond the simple learning of sex roles, embedded as it is in every aspect of social life.

(McGraw Hill Higher Education Definition)

Marketing and advertising are extremely influential when It comes to the social construction of gender.
We see examples of this in everyday life, advertisements which reinforce the stereotypes of the ‘perfect’ woman or man.

“In established capitalist societies images of naked women selling cars and niche marketing for men and women may appear commonplace” (True, 1999)pg. 367
"Gender roles exert pressure on both sexes... for men, the emphasis is outward, on professional achievement...Women are encouraged to look inward, critiquing
the appearance of their bodies and faces." (Graham 2003) (pg. 2)
Contemporary Constructions or representations of women usually tend to highlight the ‘ideal’ woman.
And lets not forget about the
"The emphasis is outward, on professional achievement and enjoyment of a certain type of lifestyle " Graham 2003 (pg. 2)
What does
tell us?
Throughout history marketing has shaped the social construction of gender
"Adults and children are exposed to
gender depictions
from a multitude of
sources, but perhaps the
most ubiquitous and stereotyped portrayals
come from

(Allan & Coltrane 1996) pg.185
"Commercials present condensed typifications of gender relations, with
typically shown as active and dominant, and
shown as passive and dependent." (Allan & Coltrane 1996) pg. 187
American Marketing
when pictured
are shown as authoritative and in control, often the recipient of care and attention from his wife . in contrast
are shown as mothers and wives
advertisements the
are shown as housewives often preoccupied with looking after their husbands needs.
in 1950s America
gender were portrayed as
hard working
, the
of the family. he is usually depicted as being a family man
anything contrary to this was automatically dismissed as
and was
negatively portrayed
in marketing, especially in public awareness campaigns.
this public service ad highlights the
of marketing in reinforcing the social constructions of gender

Allen, K. & Coltrane, S., 1996. Gender Displaying Television Commercials: A Comparative Study of Television Commercials in the 1950s and 1980s. Sex Roles, 35(3/4), pp. 185-203.

Boyle, L., 2012. ‘Show her it’s a man’s world’: American adverts from the Mad Men era reveal the shocking sexism upon which brands were built. [Online]
Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2119086/Show-s-man-s-world--American-adverts-Mad-Men-era.html
[Accessed 16 May 2012].

Graham, R., 2003. Gender Role Reinforcement in Popular Magazine Advertising, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina.

Hung, K. H., Li, S. Y. & Belk, R. W., 2007. Glocal Understandings: Female Readers' Perceptions of the New Woman in Chinese Advertising. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(6), pp. 1034-1051.

Swindler, A. (1986). Culture in action: Symbols and strategies. American Sociological Review, 51, 273-286

True, J., 1999. Expanding Markets and Marketing Gender: The Integration of the Post-Socialist Czech Republic. Review of International Political Economy , 6(3), pp. 360-389.

University of Dundee, 2011. Cultures and Practices of Advertising & Branding, s.l.: University of Dundee.

http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/076742771/student_view0/glossary.html - DICTIONARY MEANING

Butler, J. (1990). 'Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity.’Routledge, New York.

Crane, Diana, 2000. 'Fashion and Its Social Agendas: Class, Gender, and Identity in Clothing'. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Lorber, Judith. “Night to His Day: The Social Construction of Gender.” Race, class, and gender in the United States: an integrated study. Ed. Paula S. Rothenberg. Worth Publishers, 2000. pp 54 – 63.

Deustch, F. M. (2007). Undoing gender. ‘’Gender and Society, 21,’’ 106-127.
Chenoune, Farid; Muller, Florence, 2010. 'Yves Saint Laurent'. Abrams, Paris.

Fora.tv, 2008. 'Yves Saint Laurent: Eternal Style'. 11th January 2008, online at: http://fora.tv/2008/11/01/Yves_Saint_Laurent_Eternal_Style#fullprogram (Accessed 24th April 2012)

Agence France-Presse, 2005. 'Paris honours tuxedo, YSL's fashion favourite'. Online at: http://www.sawfnews.com/fashion/3148.aspx (Accessed 24th April 2012)

Basye, Ali, 2010. 'Saint Laurent introduces "Le Smoking", and changes womenswear forever'. Online at: http://onthisdayinfashion.com/?p=3750 (Accessed 24th April 2012)

Diele, Monokel 2009. 'Gender Play in German Vogue – Vogue germany October 2009'. Online at http://frejabeha.blogspot.com.au/search/label/Androgyny (Accessed 15th May)

Fiyona, 2011. 'Catwalk – Andrej Pejic' Online at http://www.fanpop.com/spots/andrej-pejic/images/17143926/title/catwalk-photo (Accessed 15th May)

Sherman, Lauren 2011. 'Image of the Day: Andrej Pejic's Dossier Cover gets censored by Barnes & Noble and Borders' – Dossier, Issue 7 2011. Online at http://fashionista.com/2011/05/image-of-the-day-andrej-pejics-dossier-cover-gets-censored-by-barnes-noble-and-borders/ (Accessed 15th May)

Sharuka, Violet 2010. 'Andrej Pejic (today's obsession)' Online at http://cheapandplastique.wordpress.com/tag/cheap/ (Accessed 15th May)
I can wear
but you still can't wear a

Chinese Advertising
hold up half
of the sky"
Maoist Slogan
were expected to be asexual and austere" (Hung et. al. 2007)
Contemporary China
“One way of choosing people for the different tasks of society is on the basis of their talents, motivations, and competence - their demonstrated achievements. The other way is
on the

basis of gender, race, ethnicity
- ascribed membership in a category of people. Although societies vary in the extent to which they use one or the other of these ways of
allocating people to work and to carry out other responsibilities
, every society uses gender and age grades.”
- 'Night to his day': The social construction of gender, Judith Lorber 1994
“It is a well-known fact that Chanel gave women their
years later Saint Laurent brought them
” (Pierre Berge, 2005).
"...people do not merely
gender roles as they grow up, rather they
respond to
the changing norms of society"
- 'Undoing Gender', Francine Deutsch 2007
approach to
in chinese advertising was in stark contrast to western social constructions.
The modern Chinese
is constructed in
different ways in advertising.
1. Official/Flower Vase Construction
"the modern woman relishes her good looks... a far cry from the androgynous female ideal of the cultural revolution era" Hung et. al 2007
2. Cultural Nurturer (family)
traditionalist views are emphasized here women are presented either spending time with the family or posing leisurely next to appliances (Hung et.al 2007)
3. Urban Sophisticate (Leisure)
shows women who are associated with western consumerist cultural values (Hung et al. 2007)
4. Strong Woman
women are shown as intelligent and reliable and are often pictured working

A brave, rich, handsome husband is a prize well worth waiting for; but no modern woman would think it was worth waiting for a hundred years. The tale of the Sleeping Beauty shows how long engagements make for happy marriages, but young girls these days want so much to be married I do not have the heart to press the moral.

Angela Carter, The Sleeping Beauty in the Wood
Now the fairies presented their gifts. The first fairy said the princess would grow up to be the loveliest woman in the world. The next said she would have the disposition of an angel, the third that she would be graceful as a gazelle, the fourth gave her the gift of dancing, the fifth of singing like a nightingale and the sixth said that she would be able to play any kind of musical instrument that she wanted to.

Angela Carter, The Sleeping Beauty in the Wood
The accumulated experience [of media exposure] contributes to the cultivation of a child’s values, beliefs, dreams, and expectations, which shape the adult identity a child will carry and modify through his or her life.
Swindler, 1986, p.311
Video Links:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bsqnqprf68o -LYNX jet

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bw0nMQxqL6s - lYNX Billions

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v3S24ofEQj4&feature=related - Boys Beware

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WVt-ecRzQlY - Coffee Ad- Harolds Wife's Coffee Sucks
Picture Links

http://jamesmys.blogspot.com.au/2010/03/when-chinese-god-died-mao-zedong-and_10.html (chinese images)
Photo by Helmut Newton, 1975
Full transcript