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Public Schools 1800-1870

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Danielle Trudgeon

on 29 November 2015

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Transcript of Public Schools 1800-1870

1850
1900
1800
2000
National Curriculum Physical Education and School Sport
Public Schools 1800-1870
Rational Recreation
1850-1890

Change in society mainly down to: The Industrial Revolution
State School Education
1870-1940

Schools for working class established in 1870.
It took a number of years for all children to attend as they worked.
The main aim was to provide a safe environment for the children away from the dangers of child labour.
National Curriculum
1990

Established by the Government in the early 1990s to control what was being taught in schools. PE was a core subject and therefore compulsory.
Clarendon schools:
Harrow, Eton, Charterhouse, Rugby, Shrewsbury, Westminster, Winchester, Merchant Taylors, St Paul’s.

Each school was an all boys public school, differing slightly in facilities and values. Each of the headmasters instilled his own values into the boys.
Well known headmasters include –
Thomas Arnold 1828 –1842 Rugby School
Lyttelton (Eton) and
Wordsworth (Harrow).

Characteristics
Fee paying/upper class
Very strict discipline
Schools controlled by trustees
Much bullying occured
Basic living conditions
Boarding houses- not local
harsh treatment used to prepare for adult life
Single sex (boys)
Divided into 'houses'
Values
To create well developed and well educated young men who could make positive contributions to life after school
Well behaved
Disciplined
Good etiquette
Fairplay
Honour
Respect
Athleticism
- Manliness/physical/robustness
- Pursuit of physical endeavour;/effort/striving;
-Appreciating the value of healthy exercise/fitness;
-Accepting the discipline of rule-regulated activity;
- Accepting the discipline of physical preparation;
-Moral integrity.

Muscular Christianity
-team work and team spirit
-conforming to the rules
-accepting authority
-abiding by the principle of fair play and sportsmanship
-playing honourably more important than winning
-use of 'God-given' abilities
-performance dedicated to God
How did sports emerge from public schools?
'Mob' sports taken from villages were disapproved by headmasters because they were violent and unruly
Gradually sport was seen as a way of allowing boys to expend energy and instilling discipline
Each school developed its own form of games to fit in with the local environment
These became organised with rules and restrictions on things like numbers and boundaries:
Codification- led to original governing bodies of sport.
.

Skills developed and leadership became important and games were often organised by senior boys. Sport was seen as a form of Social Control.
Schools began to play each other and Headmasters saw the games had other values. They often joined in and invited older boys back to encourage others
Playing standards improved as well as facilities, equipment and therefore results.
Melting pot of idea's
Ex-public school boys– people who left the public schools
Teachers – taught the sports to the public school boys and later all school children.
Industry – taught athleticism to work force. Promoted the value of healthy active lifestyles.
Parents – taught values of sport and rules to their children. Taught them to be disciplined.
Politicians – gave money to the towns to build facilities so local people could start to play sport.
Community – formed clubs so they could play sport
Army – Spread knowledge of the rules of sport across the world through colonising other cultures
Vicars – parish and church teams formed, Sunday schools set up, and scout and guide groups played. This made the church more attractive.

What affect would this have on sport?
Changes due to the industrial revolution
Greater use of machinery

Move by the working class to the cities (URBANISATION)

Growing Middle class (factory owners, doctors, clergy)

long working hours (12 hrs, 6 x a week. No time for leisure

Terraced houses close to factories. No space for leisure

Provided facilities for games to be played
Between 1880-1890 most of today's modern sports were invented and formalised.







Rational recreation- the provision of activities for the lower classes whose work and leisure time had become strictly limited
The development of transport and communication
Railways developed
Traveling was easier and cheaper- enabled fixtures and competitions
More people could read
Publicity about fixtures grew which led to increase in media interest and spectators
The Gentleman Amateur
Middle class and upper class wanted to keep sport for themselves.
They made the rules to exclude the working class and only the GENTLEMAN AMATEUR were permitted to play.

Gentleman amateur: played sport for pleasure; played to a strict moral code- fair play.
This did not extend to football where many factory and church based teams emerged.
Working week reduced to 5 1/2 days- Saturday afternoon spent playing/watching football.
Paying spectators gave the team money so they could bring in better players- the start of professionalism in football.
But...
Values
Disciplined
Basic skills of reading and writing
Obedient
Did not need the leadership and decision making of public schools
Characteristics
Lots of children from both sexes
Cramped conditions- no recreational facilities
Activities designed to keep order.
Drilled into learning
The Model Course
Following the Boer War (1899-1902) It was decided that the working class who had been recruited into the army were ill-disciplined and unfit.
Military drill exercises were introduced to schools
Schools employed former army non-commissioned officers (NCOs) to act as instructors.
In school yard or behind desks.
Command-response style teaching.

The model course was replaced by a syllabus of physical training.
In 1919, the First World War and a flu-epidemic had left the country in generally poor health.






Early Syllabus of Physical Training 1904 and 1909
The Syllabus 1919
Set against huge loss of life in WW1 and in post-war flu epidemic
The syllabus was progressive in terms its broader content and child-centred approach.

Introduction
In this unit we will look at:

The historical, social and cultural factors contributing towards the development of the current provision of PE.



Public School Sports 1800-1870
Rational Recreation
(1850-1890)
State School Education
(1870-1940)
National Curriculum
1990-present
The fanatical devotion to both the physical side of playing sport, but also the development of moral integrity.
The view that participation in sport could contribute to the development of Christian morality, physical fitness, and “manly” character.
Characteristics
-Played regularly/free time/middle & upper classes
-Complex, written rules/number of players/boundaries/time
-Highly structured/NGBs/levels of competition
-Teams are wearing kit/positional roles/ strategies/tactics
-Technological aspects such as ball/goal posts/equipment
-Skills based
-Moral values/etiquette/code of conduct;
-Spectator development;
-Officials
.
Syllabus of Physical Training 1933
Aims/Objectives
Children should be able to:
Achieve physical competence and confidence.
Perform in a range of activities.
Achieve physical skilfulness.
Gain knowledge of the body in action.
Become a 'critical performer'
Learn competitiveness and creativity
Learn how to plan. perform and evaluate.
Discover their abilities, aptitudes and make choices for lifelong learning.
Perform in a range of roles (officiating, coaching, leading)
Content
Six groups of activities:

-Games (invasion, striking, fielding, net/wall)
-Athletic activities
-Swimming
-Gymnastics
-Dance
-Outdoor adventurous activities
Key Stages
KS1 (Years 1 and 2)
Dance, gymnastics, games.
Develop simple skills and movement sequences.

KS2 (Years 3-6)
Skill levels and coordination develop, produce more complex movement patterns.
PROBLEM: most primary schools do not have a PE teacher and the classroom teacher is not a specialist.

TOP programme and specialist sports colleges with SSCOs to get expert help into primary schools.
Key Stages
KS3 (Year 7-9)
Refining skills and developing the complexity of their movements. Involved in smaller versions of adult activities and be learning rules and tactics of these activities.

KS4 (Year 10 and 11)
Follow games and other activities. Learn how to plan, prepare and evaluate a health-related programme and be able to understand the theoretical principles.


LEARNING IS CHILD-CENTERED
TAUGHT THROUGH PLAY
NON SPECIALIST TEACHERS
COMPETITIVE
SPECIALIST TEACHERS

KEY POINTS
Assessment:
-provides goals and motivation for pupils and organises teaching.
-Problems: can add pressure to pupils and takes up a lot of time which is taken away from activities

Extra-curricular:
-Offered voluntarily by teachers during lunchtimes and after school.
-Includes recreational activities and competitive fixtures.
-Problems: teachers not paid, health and safety concerns and lack of facilities.

Facilities:
-Government policy to make sure that all schools have sufficient facilities to provide a sustainable PE curriculum.
-Big difference between schools
-Schools may share facilities within the local community:
dual use facilities.

-Problems: increase in usage can lead to overuse and damage. Lines of responsibility unclear
-Advantages: facility involves the whole community helping to create better links between the school and public.
Factors that can affect a child's experience of PE
Teachers- Positive or negative influence

Facilities

Tradition of activities
Greater emphasis on academic achievement
Finance
Similarities and differences between state school and current NC
Similarities:
Both directed/told what to teach
Both concerned with health promotion
Both compulsory
Both preparation for life after school

Differences:


Initial reduction in opportunities for the working class to participate due to:
Long working hours
Sunday was a day of rest
Lack of space
Mob games banned due to damage
Low income
Later things started to improve:
Trade union- less working hours
Saturday half day for sport
Encouraging factory owners
Better wages
Transport


Objectives
Military Fitness
Obedience
Discipline
Weapons handling
Preparation for work/war
Content
Marching
Military drill
In ranks
Dummy arms drills
Methodology
LASTED ONLY TWO YEARS:
Inappropriate
Not child centered
Not educational
Objectives
Methodolog
y
Content
Enjoyment and play for the under 7’s
Therapeutic work for the over 7’s

Exercises and ‘positions’ same s 1909
Special section for games for the under 7’s
Not less than half the lesson on ‘general activity exercises’ – active free movement, including small games and dancing

Objectives
Content
Methodolog
y
Physical fitness Therapeutic results
Good Physique
Good posture Development of mind and body (holistic aims)


Gymnastics
Athletics
Games
Still direct style for the majority of the lesson
Group work/tasks throughout
Encouragement for special clothing/kit
5 x 20 minute lesson a week recommended
Outdoor lessons recommended for health benefits


Methodology

Specialised teachers
Child-centred
Decision-making
Taught through play
Popular Recreation 1700-1800
Pre-industrialisation
Popular recreation: recreation for the masses, involving violent, unruly mob games.
Working class/peasants

Played 'mob games'
Life based on farming year
Little time for recreation- holy days and festivals.
Let off steam and challenge others
Who played it?
Characeristics

-No clear rules
-Local/rural
-Disorganised/unstructured
-few/simple unwritten rules
-lower class involvement
-done for the participant rather than spectators
-limited facilities/equipment
-Carried out occassionally
-based on force not skill
Examples
-Badger baiting
- Billiards
- Skittles
-Dog fighting
- Quoits
-Prize fighting
-Mob football
Objectives
Improving health and fitness
Therapuetic effect
Obedience and Discipline
Enjoyment
Alertness
Therapeutic effects of exercise (with emphasis on respiration, circulation and posture)


Content
Recreative aspects to relive dullness, tedium and monotony of former lesson
Introduction of dancing steps and simple games
Inclusion of Danish and rhythmic swinging exercise

Methodology
Still formal
Still in ranks with marching
Still unison response to commands
A kinder approach by teachers
Some freedom of choice for teachers

More freedom for teachers ad pupils
Less formality
More child-centred

1952
Moving and Growing
Objectives
Content
Methodolog
y
Physical, social and cognitive
Enjoyment
Personal development
For all

Gymnastics
Athletics
Dance
Games
Movement to music
Agility exercises
Specialised PE Teachers.
Greater range of activities.
Child-centered experience.
Discovery learning.
Individual.
Problem solving skills


After the Second World War, many schools needed to be rebuilt.
Apparatus was introduced to gymnasia, while playing fields were provided for all schools.
Change in syllabus- moving away from prescription and commands of PT towards a more creative, child-centered, movement style of learning.
The industrial depression of the 1930’s left many of the working class unemployed
This syllabus- had one section for the under 11’s and one for the over 11’s

Popular Recreation 1700-1800
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