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The Chemistry of the Pancreatic Cancer Test Strip

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Olivia Brooks

on 8 April 2014

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Transcript of The Chemistry of the Pancreatic Cancer Test Strip

The Chemistry of the Pancreatic Cancer Test Strip
Olivia Brooks
10/2/2014
Block E Science Class
Atoms
Compounds, Molecules, and Mixtures
Compound- A pure substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined.
States of Matter
The main states of matter in my project are solids and liquids.
The Chemistry of the Pancreatic Cancer Test
Introduction
For my science project, I researched a newly created test that detects pancreatic cancer in its earliest stages. All you need is a drop of blood and a test strip to detect if you have pancreatic cancer. This test was developed by Jack Andraka, who was 15 when he developed this theory.
Just to Review...
The protein that causes pancreatic cancer is the
compound
mesothelin. The
molecules
forming carbon nanotubes are used in combination with the antibodies, and a drop of blood
(mixture)
to be used as an early detection for pancreatic cancer. This new innovative technology is cheaper, faster, and more reliable than the current technology.
Atoms are so small, that if you filled the world with blueberries, all the blueberries in the world would equal the amount of atoms in a regular sized grapefruit!
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Carbon Atom
Carbon Atoms
Six Protons

Six Neutrons
Six Electrons
Protons are POSITIVELY charged
Neutrons have NO charge
Electrons are NEGATIVELY charged
Carbon atoms are found, in my project, combined with other carbon atoms.
The Carbon Atom's Atomic Structure
Carbon is an atom that exists all by its self. One carbon atom has all of the properties of carbon. The atomic symbol for carbon is "C", and the atomic structure is six protons, six neutrons, and six electrons.
Molecule- The smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more atoms; a group of like or different atoms held together by chemical forces.
Mixture- A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined.
Carbon Nanotubes
Each intersection of the hexagon is a carbon atom.
Blood
How Blood is Involved in My Project
The cancer test relies on a blood sample to work. When pancreatic cancer is detected by the body, the immune system sends out antibodies. These antibodies combat the protein that is in pancreatic cancer cells by attaching itself to the protein and enlarging the protein. This protein is most commonly found in the blood, due to excessive amounts being produced due to the tumor.
What is in Blood?
Mesothelin- The excessive protein that is found in the blood stream when some one has pancreatic cancer.
MORAb-009 (Amatuximab)- The antibody that combats Mesothelin
C
6394
H
9870
N
1694
O
2024
S
46
MORAb-009 is a lab generated antibody. It prevents cancer cells from dividing, which presents the cells from spreading.
What Else is in Blood?
White Blood Cells
Red Blood Cells
Compounds! The compound most relevant to my project is Mesothelin.
Mesothelin is a compound of N-terminal megakaryocyte potentiating factor (MPF), which is an extracellular protein
and the C-terminal 327-residue mesothelin.
Mixtures! The mixture most relevant to my project is blood.
Molecules! The molecules most relevant to my project are Carbon Nanotubes.
Solids
Many parts of my project are solid, such as:
The test strip for pancreatic cancer
The Carbon Nanotubes
All of the cells that are included in my project
The particles of a solid do not move fast enough to overcome the strong attraction between them, so they stay close together and vibrate in place.
Liquids
The main liquids in my project are the serum that contains the protein Mesothelin, and blood.
The particles of a liquid move fast enough to overcome some of the attraction between them. The particles are close together but can slide past one another
Gases
Believe it or not, the air we breathe is not just air. We call the mixture of different gases we breathe "air". Air is actually made up of...
Nitrogen-78%
Oxygen-21%
Argon-0.93%
Carbon Dioxide-0.04%
Methane-0.0002%
Hydrogen-0.00006%
Carbon Monoxide-0.00001%
CO2
CO
There are no gases that are important to my topic. Temperature, volume and pressure do not impact the gases in my topic in anyway.
Gases in My Project
Changes of State
In the pancreatic cancer test strips, there are no changes of state.
Heat and Temperature
Heat is the energy that is transferred between objects of different temperatures.
Temperature is the measure of the average speed or the kinetic energy of the atoms for molecules in a substance
Heat is transferred through conduction, convection and radiation!
Conduction
Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another through direct contact. Conduction can also occur within an object.
How does conduction work?
When the objects touch each other, their particles collide. When the particles collide, thermal energy is transferred to the lower-temperature substance from the higher-temperature substance. This process is called conduction!
The conduction in my project is from the test strip to the plastic casing that the test strips are stored in.

Lower-temperature object, the plastic
Higher-temperature object, the test strip
The heat is being transferred from the test strip to the plastic
Convection
Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of a liquid or a gas.
How does convection work?
Think of water boiling in a pot. As the water heats up, it moves in a circular pattern. The water at the bottom of the pot gets hot, becomes less dense, then rises through the cooler, denser water, cools at the top of the pot, then sinks to the bottom again and repeats this cycle. This is conduction.
In my project, convection occurs in the vial of blood that contains the protein mesothelin.
The blood is cooling in the vial, causing it to become denser and sink back to the bottom of the vile.
The blood is heating in the vial, causing it to become less dense, and rise through the cooler blood to the top of the vial.
Convection in a Vial of Blood
Radiation
Radiation is the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. Radiation can involve either an energy transfer between particles of matter or an energy transfer across empty space.
How does radiation work?
All objects radiate electromagnetic waves, which means that all objects radiate heat at all times.
(The picture of the test strip is enlarged for better viewing quality)
In my project, the example of radiation came from the radiation of heat from a person holding the test strip in their hand to the test strip, as seen on the left.
Heat from the hand, which is warmer than the test strip, is radiating from the hand to the cooler test strip.
Physical Properties and Changes
Physical Property- Matter that can be observed or measured without changing the matters identity
Physical Changes- A type of change in which the form of matter is altered but one substance is not transformed into another.
Physical properties can include- Density, thermal conductivity, state, solubility, color, shape, and ductility. These are NOT the only types of physical properties!
These red arrows represent the heat radiating.
Watch me!
Watch me!
Physical Properties in my Project
Some examples of physical properties in my project are:
Test Strip- The color of the test strip is black
The state of the test strip is solid
The state of blood is liquid
Carbon nanotubes are good thermal conductors
The density of the mesothelin cells
The density of the carbon nanotubes
The ductility of the carbon nanotubes
The malleability of carbon nanotubes
Physical Changes in my Project
Some examples of physical changes in my project are:
The mesothelin proteins in the test strip change in size as they react to the antibodies.
The electrical impulses of the carbon nanotubes are shorter due to the enlarged proteins.
The thermal conductivity of the carbon nanotubes decreases
Chemical Properties and Changes
Also called chemical reactions!
Chemical Property- A property of matter that describes a substance’s ability to participate in chemical reactions
Chemical Changes- A change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties.
Some chemical properties are flammability, reactivity with oxygen, reactivity with vinegar. These are just a few chemical properties.
Chemical Properties
There are not many chemical properties in my project, but the two that I found are
The electrical conductivity of the carbon nanotubes
The flammability of the test strip
This is a picture of a carbon nanotube fiber attached to two electrical leads. The red-white color is the electricity in the carbon nanotube!
This picture is representing the flammability of the test strip.
Chemical Reactions
There are no immediate chemical reactions in my project.
Bibliography
"Atom Structure." Universe Today RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2014. - carbon atom
“Build a Lesson around Any TED-Ed Original, TED Talk or YouTube Video." TED-Ed. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2014- Grapefruit- world comparison
http://lib.store.yahoo.net/lib/nanolab2000/carbonveil1.png - Carbon nanotubes
http://www.astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-physics-notes/materials/a-level-physics-notes-nanotubes-html-m62196236.gif - carbon nanotubes #2
http://www.astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-physics-notes/materials/a-level-physics-notes-nanotubes-html-m62196236.gif - carbon nanotubes #3
"Nanoed." : Not All Carbon Nanotubes Are Created Equally. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2014.- Carbon nanotubes #4
Cuevas, Mapi, and Sally Ann Vonderbrink. Introduction to Matter. Austin, Texas: Holt, Rinehart, Winston , 2007. Print. - definition of Compounds and Molecules
"Molecule." The Free Dictionary. Farlex, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2014. - Definition of molecule
http://www.pierce-antibodies.com/images/prodvalimagenew/Mesothelin_MA5-16378_Antibody_Immunohistochemistry.jpg - mesothelin
Armstrong, DK et al. "A phase 1 study of MORAb-009, a monoclonal antibody against mesothelin in pancreatic cancer, mesothelioma and ovarian adenocarcinoma." J Clin Oncol 25.18S (2007): 14041. - MORAb-009
"Carbon." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 01 Dec. 2014. Web. 12 Jan. 2014. - MORAb-009
http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/figures/1472-6807-9-1-3.gif - C-terminal 327-residue mesothelin
http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2656/4130648491_3a9a19d238_o.jpg - N-terminal megakaryocyte potentiating factor (MPF)

Hansen, Steven. "Pancreatic Cancer Cure." Global Economic Intersection . Econintersect, 10 2 2013. Web. 5 Feb. 2014. <http://econintersect.com/b2evolution/blog1.php/2013/02/08/pancreatic-cancer-cure>.

MacNeil, Lehrer . "Teen Scientist Invents Life-Saving Cancer Test." PBS News hour EXTRA. PBS, 9 11 2013. Web. 5 Feb. 2014. <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/student_voices/teen-scientist-invents-life-saving-cancer-test/>

Cossins, Dan. "The Cancer-Test Kid." TheScientist. The Scientist , 1 4 2013. Web. 5 Feb. 2014. <http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/34759/title/The-Cancer-Test-Kid/>.

American Cancer, Society . "Learn About Cancer."American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society, 1 28 2013. Web. 6 Feb. 2014. <http://www.cancer.org/cancer/pancreaticcancer/detailedguide/pancreatic-cancer-key-statistics>.

Tucker, Abigail. "Jack Andraka, the Teen Prodigy of Pancreatic Cancer." Smithsonian . Smithsonian Magazine , 1 12 2012. Web. 6 Feb. 2014. <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/jack-andraka-the-teen-prodigy-of-pancreatic-cancer-135925809/>.

Mayo Clinic , Staff. "Pancreatic Cancer ." Mayo Clinic . Mayo Clinic , 1 2 2014. Web. 6 Feb. 2014. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pancreatic-cancer/basics/definition/con-20028153>.

TED, Talk . "Jack Andraka: A promising test for pancreatic cancer ... from a teenager." TED ideas worth spreading . TED Talks , 1 7 2013. Web. 6 Feb. 2014. <http://www.ted.com/talks/jack_andraka_a_promising_test_for_pancreatic_cancer_from_a_teenager.html>.

White Blood Cell- www.turbosquid.com
Red Blood Cells- http://news.rice.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/0914_BLOOD_lg.jpg

How solids act-
How solids act- Holt, , Rinehart, and Winston . Holt Science & Technology - Introduction to Matter. 06-83. Orlando, Austin, New York, San Diego, Toronto, London: Weekly Reading Technologies, 2007. 32. Print.

How liquids act-
How liquids act- Holt, , Rinehart, and Winston . Holt Science & Technology - Introduction to Matter. 06-83. Orlando, Austin, New York, San Diego, Toronto, London: Weekly Reading Technologies, 2007. 32. Print.

Nitrogen atom- http://www.chemicalelements.com/bohr/b0007.gif
Oxygen atom- http://www.chemicalelements.com/bohr/b0007.gif
Argon atom- http://www.chemicalelements.com/bohr/b0007.gif
Carbon Dioxide- http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/@api/deki/files/10760/Carbon_Dioxide.png
Methane- http://www.arctic.uoguelph.ca/cpe/arcticnews/updates/methane.gif
Hydrogen atom- http://herschel.jpl.nasa.gov/images/hydrogen-atom.jpg
Carbon Monoxide- http://www.bunclodyns.com/missionv/carbon%20monoxide.gif

Definition of Heat- Holt, , Rinehart, and Winston . Holt Science & Technology - Forces, Motion and Energy. 06-83. Orlando, Austin, New York, San Diego, Toronto, London: Weekly Reading Technologies, 2007. 32. Print.

Definition of Temperature- “What is Temperature.” 2006. 11 Feb. 2014 <http://www.aos.wisc.edu/~aalopez/aos101/wk4/temp.html>
Definition of Conduction- Holt, , Rinehart, and Winston . Holt Science & Technology - Forces, Motion and Energy. 06-83. Orlando, Austin, New York, San Diego, Toronto, London: Weekly Reading Technologies, 2007. 32. Print.

How Conduction works- Holt, , Rinehart, and Winston . Holt Science & Technology - Forces, Motion and Energy. 06-83. Orlando, Austin, New York, San Diego, Toronto, London: Weekly Reading Technologies, 2007. 32. Print.

Definition of Convection- Holt, , Rinehart, and Winston . Holt Science & Technology - Forces, Motion and Energy. 06-83. Orlando, Austin, New York, San Diego, Toronto, London: Weekly Reading Technologies, 2007. 32. Print.

How Convection Works- Holt, , Rinehart, and Winston . Holt Science & Technology - Forces, Motion and Energy. 06-83. Orlando, Austin, New York, San Diego, Toronto, London: Weekly Reading Technologies, 2007. 32. Print.

Definition of Radiation- Holt, , Rinehart, and Winston . Holt Science & Technology - Forces, Motion and Energy. 06-83. Orlando, Austin, New York, San Diego, Toronto, London: Weekly Reading Technologies, 2007. 32. Print.

How Radiation Works- Holt, , Rinehart, and Winston . Holt Science & Technology - Forces, Motion and Energy. 06-83. Orlando, Austin, New York, San Diego, Toronto, London: Weekly Reading Technologies, 2007. 32. Print.

Vial of blood- <http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/jara3000/jara30001103/jara3000110300007/9103829-vector-vial-of-blood-over-white-eps-8.jpg>

Picture of hand- http://static.comicvine.com/uploads/original/11111/111116195/3349839-left-hand-outstretched.jpg

Picture of Test strip- http://www.wallpick.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/12/black-windows_54293.jpg

Physical Properties Definition- Holt, , Rinehart, and Winston . Holt Science & Technology - Introduction to Matter. 06-83. Orlando, Austin, New York, San Diego, Toronto, London: Weekly Reading Technologies, 2007. 32. Print.

Physical Changes Definition- Anne Helmenstine. "Physical Change Definition - Definition for a Physical Change." 2009. 11 Feb. 2014 <http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryglossary/g/physical-change-definition.htm>

List of Physical Properties- Holt, , Rinehart, and Winston . Holt Science & Technology - Introduction to Matter. 06-83. Orlando, Austin, New York, San Diego, Toronto, London: Weekly Reading Technologies, 2007. 32. Print.

Chemical Change Definition- Holt, , Rinehart, and Winston . Holt Science & Technology - Introduction to Matter. 06-83. Orlando, Austin, New York, San Diego, Toronto, London: Weekly Reading Technologies, 2007. 32. Print.

List of Chemical Changes-Holt, , Rinehart, and Winston . Holt Science & Technology - Introduction to Matter. 06-83. Orlando, Austin, New York, San Diego, Toronto, London: Weekly Reading Technologies, 2007. 32. Print.

Picture of Fire- http://ncptt.nps.gov/wp-content/uploads/fire-vector.png
Picture of electrical carbon nanotube- http://ncptt.nps.gov/wp-content/uploads/fire-vector.png
Full transcript