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AP Exam Review: The Cell

Review of AP Biology Unit 2: The Cell (Cell Structure and Function, Cell Respiration, Photosynthesis, and the Cell Cycle

Heidi Wiecker

on 7 May 2012

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Transcript of AP Exam Review: The Cell

The Cell Cell Structure and Function Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Cell Cycle Classification Plant Cells Animal Cells Prokaryotes Eukaryotes cell wall (cellulose)
central vacuole
membrane-bound organelles lysosomes
membrane-bound organelles circular DNA
cell wall (peptidoglycans)
no membrane-bound organelles nucleus
membrane-bound organelles Membranes Phospholipid Bilayer hydrophillic head
hydrophobic tail
forms barrier Fluid Mosaic Model protein embedded
in lipid bilayer Membrane Proteins Transmembrane Proteins (across membrane)
Integral Proteins (within membrane) form ion channels
active transport
transfer electrons
signal transduction Peripheral Proteins (on inner/outer surfaces) cell recognition
cell adhesion Organelles Double Unit Membrane
(DUM) Single Unit Membrane
(SUM) Nucleus stores genetic material
makes ribosomes
makes tRNA
makes mRNA
control center nuclear membrane (barrier)
perinuclear space (continuous w/ cisterna of ER)
nuclear pores (exchange material)
nucleolus (make ribosome & tRNA) Functions Structures Mitochondrion Functions aerobic respiration
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport Structures outer membrane
inner membrane/cristae (electron transport)
matix (Krebs Cycle)
intermembranous space (chemiosmosis)
mitochondrial DNA/mtDNA (maternal only) Chloroplast Functions photosynthesis
Light Reactions (Photosystems I & II)
Dark Reactions (Calvin Cycle) Structures outer membrane
inner membrane/thylakoid (electron transport)
stroma (Calvin Cycle)
intermembranous space (chemoosmosis)
granum/thylakoid stack (photosystems Endoplasmic Reticulum Functions transport material (smooth & rough)
store lipids (smooth & rough)
make proteins (rough only) Structures cisterna (transport & store)
lumen (space in cisterna)
ribosome (make proteins) Smooth (no ribosomes)
Rough (ribosomes on surface) Golgi Body Functions package proteins
form lysosomes/vesicles
form cell wall Structures Forming/Cis Face (receives proteins)
Mature/Transface (releases vesicles) Lysosome Structures Primary (hydrolytic enzyme)
Secondary (enzyme + food)
Residual (enzyme + waste) Functions Phagocytosis (food digestion)
Autophagy (remove old organelles) Vacuole Functions storage Structures Food (store food)
Water (store water/maintain turgidity)
Contractile (pump water/osmoregulation) Non Membrane
(NUM) Centriole Functions forms spindle Flagella/Cilia Functions motility Cytoskeleton Functions motility
support Structures Microfilaments (contractility)
Microtubules (rigidity)
Intermediate Filaments Cell Wall Functions maintain shape (plants) Structures Primary (rigid fibers & matrix, cellulose & pectin & glycoproteins)
Secondary (rigid, prevents compression, cellulose & lignin)
Middle Lamella (outer wall. shared, pectin & protein) Cell Junctions Structures Desmosomes (protein attachments, hold tissues together, "spot weld")
Tight Junction (prevents materials passing between cells)
Gap Junction (narrow tunnels, allow cellular communication)
Plasmodesmata (channels connecting plant cells) Movement through Membrane Selective Permability lipid bilayer (allows nonpolar in/stops polar)
proteins (form channels for polars) Passive Transport no energy expenditure
molecules move from high to low
follow concentration gradient
diffusion (any molecule)
osmosis (water through membrane)
facilitated diffusion (protein mediated channels) Active Transport energy expenditure
requires ATP
molecules move from low to high
against concentration gradient
Electrogenic (Proton) Pump
Cotransport (Proton Pump/Sucrose)
Na/K Pump (protein/enzyme mediated channels) Vesicular Transport exocytocsis (materials out of cell)
endocytosis (materials into cell)
phagocytosis (solids into cell vesicle)
pinocytosis (liquids into cell vesicle) Tonicity Hypotonic (water into cell)
Isotonic (dynamic equilibrium)
Hypertonic (water out of cell) Overview Function: releases energy from sugar
Anaerobic (Fermentation) - without oxygen
Aerobic - with oxygen Glycolysis first pathway in all forms
glucose converted to pyruvate
forms 2ATP, 2NADH
occurs in cytosol Kreb's (Citric Acid) Cycle second pathway in aerobic
pyruvate converted to acetyl-CoA
acetyl-CoA converted to carbon dioxide
forms 1ATP, 3NADH, 1FADH2
occurs in matrix of mitochondria Electron Transport Chain last pathway in aerobic
chemiosmosis (proton pump)
oxidative phosphorylation (cytochromes)
NADH & FADH transfer electrons to cytochromes
protons (H+) pumped into intermembrane space
protons (H+) return through ATP synthetase
ATP synthetase changes ADP into ATP
oxygen (O2) is final hydrogen acceptor forming water
36 ATP formed
occurs in cristae of mitochondria Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Glycolysis first pathway in all forms
glucose converted to pyruvate
forms 2ATP, 2NADH
occurs in cytosol Homolactic Fermentation animal cells
pyruvate converted to lactic acid
forms 2ATP, 2NADH
occurs in cytosol Alcoholic Fermentation bacteria & yeast cells
pyruvate converted to ethanol
forms 2ATP, 2NADH
occurs in cytosol Overview light energy to chemical energy
Light Reactions/Photophosphorylation (grana)
Dark Reactions/Calvin Cycle (stroma)
carbon dioxide + water forms sugar + oxygen
autotrophs Light Reactions light energy to chemical energy
chloroplast thylakoid membrane
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
Cyclic Photophosphorylation Cyclic Photophosphorylation light energy to chemical energy
chloroplast thylakoid membrane
insufficient carbon dioxide or water for dar reactions
light energy converted to ATP
only Photosystem I Noncyclic Photophosphorylation light energy to chemical energy
chloroplast thylakoid membrane
sufficient carbon dioxide or water for Dark Reactions
uses Photosystem I and Photosystem II
photolysis (PS II) - splits water releasing oxygen and protons (H+)
light energy converted to ATP (chemiosmosis)
protons (H+) accepted by NADP forming NADPH (PS I)
NADPH and ATP go to Dark Reactions Dark Reactions three pathways occur in stroma of chloroplast
Carbon Fixation - add carbon dioxide to existing sugars (RuBP)
uses NADPH and ATP from Light Reactions
Calvin Cycle - regenerates RuBP and forms PGA
Rubicso - carbon fixation to 5 carbon sugar RuBP
Hexose Shunt - combines 2 PGA to form 1 glucose
a.k.a. C3 metabolism - PGA is a "3 carbon sugar" Special Pathways Rubisco combines w/ oxygen
forms glycolate
glycolate converted to glycine
glycine metabolised in mitochondria
releases carbon dioxide
occurs with low carbon dioxide level
dry hot days w/ stomata closed C4 Plants grasses, corn, rice, sugar cane
Hatch-Slack Pathway
carbon fixation separated anatomically
PEP carboxylase fixes carbon into 4C storage molecules (oxaloacetate, malate)
regenerates carbon dioxide in inner bundle sheath cells for Calvin-Cycle Photorespiration CAM Plants cactu, succulents, pineapples
carbon fixation separated temporally
at night w/stomates open carbon fixation of carbon dioxide
generates "storage" molecules (malate, isocitrate)
in dayw/stomates closed compounds release carbon dioxide to Calvin Cycle Cell Cycle G0 - cells stop dividing (neurons)
G1 - cell growth to surface area volume maximum ratio
S - DNA replication
G2 - accumulates materials needed for cell division (check point)
M - cell division - mitosis phase Mitosis produces clones
form of asexual reproduction
multicellular growth & repair
Interphase - Go, G1, S, G2 stages
Prophase - prepares for division
Metaphase - chromatids line up
Anaphase - chromatids separate
Telophase - cytokinesis - 2 identical daughter cells formed
Cell plate - plant cytokinesis
Cleavage furrow - animal cytokinesis Mitotic Control surface area/volume trigger
density dependent inhibition
metaphase checkpoint
G2 checkpoint
Full transcript