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Transcript of Agricultural society
Agricultural society in sport.
In medieval Britain and Ireland school wasn't an option for the children, especially the boys as they were forced to work due to the main priority being the production of food and the food supply, there was no such thing as a food surplus in this era, as there was never too much food. Hard work was the norm for the male medieval population and there was no days off, except for the occasional 'market day' or 'fair' which was where the population would usually undergo their leisure activities, however they are nothing in comparison to what they are nowadays. The leisure activities of medieval citizens consisted of dog fighting, bare fist-fighting, drinking, dancing and many more. These type of events were usually held in the center of the town/village, there was also then usually activities such as; billiards and bowls located in a hotel or bar for people to enjoy as a pastime. The rich were able to overcome/surpass game laws enabling them do activities like; hunting, sailing and tennis that the poor were secluded from. The poorer people of the village, commonly known as peasants, would partake in activities such as mob football, which would have been too violent for the rich to participate in.
Oliver Cromwell's Reign
During Oliver Cromwell's reign, from 1649 and 1653, he decided that parliament was not the correct option for the way England should be ran, he is the individual who pushed for the execution of King Charles, he was a puritan in which he wanted everybody to follow his beliefs, who believed life should be lived as it's stated in the bible, he also believed if you worked hard; you'd be rewarded in heaven. Cromwell shut down the Inns and theaters as he deemed them to be pointless enjoyment which he didn't believe in due to his religion, and abolished sports as he believed they should not be participated in as they weren't in the bible. Even though Oliver Cromwell had placed down all of these rules, and abolished as many things as he did, he was not a strict man himself who enjoyed listening to music, going hunting and playing bowls. It seems as though he didn't want to see other people receiving pointless enjoyment however enjoyed the things he had abolished from them, therefore; receiving pointless enjoyment himself.
In 1660 the monarchy was restored and the medieval period begun a new era, this was the era of King Charles II, he was very popular with the citizens of medieval Britain, as he ressurected sports, such as; mob football, tennis, yachting and hunting, which all grew in popularity again instantly. However he didnt onnly restore old abolished sports and leisure activities, but he was also king when new sports such as; cricket, skating and fishing all begun, with popularity, especially by the rich. All sports and activities weren't just for the rich as the poorer citizens of medieval britain also had newly developed parlour games, such as; Dice, dominos and draughts. Festivals werealso reintroduced, however many of them remained religious.
Who did what?!
The poor and the rich did completely different sports/sporting activities, as the rich had more time to do theirs so they were usually held in the countryside, they did activities such as; fishing, yachting, and hunting, which the poor and "ordinary" were unable to do as ame laws prevented them from doing so as the rich hunted on their own land. The poor did sports such as mob football and an unregular basis, as they were only able to do it on market days, as they were to consumed in work the rest of the time, due to the main priority for them being the production of food.
The industrial revolution was a harsh time to live in, the work was hard, enduring and in prolonged periods of time, for citizen's of all ages; in substantially dirty, unsanitry conditions. Work was tough, jobs ranged from; chimneey sweeping for young boys and they didnt sotp until they became to big, which took a while as te food came in scarce supplies due to the amount of people in families. Families were big and ever increasing as there was no laws or acts against children working, so the more children they had, the higher their income would be. However in 1870 an education act was bought in and meant children were unable to work as it wass compulsary that the children of this generation were now to be educated. The sport for average and poor people in this era wasn't actively pursued as they didn't have time to enjoy themselves, work was their priority, they also didn't have the facilities as they were based in the town within the houses, factor ies and shops etc. The sport/leisure time for rich people was still reguarly enjoyed as they had the time and the facilities as they would pursue country sports, such as; shooting, hunting and cricket. In 1847 there was a ten hour day working act introduced which meant the maximum hours available to work per day was ten hours, most people would have been on ten hour day contracts, however if they were luckier, ten hours wass the longest they could work for, but sometimes worked for less. Middle class people were unable to parttake in the sports like; tennis, cricket and boxing so they then became spectators to the sport, continuing from the medieval times, gambling was still present within the sports and spectatorship, and still being present with the game gamling came the drinking and prostitution business's ufortunately. The industrial revolution also introduced many people living in houses, however; they weren't big house's and living conditions became very cramped, as families were growing and werent stopping, up until the 1870 education act came into the picture and families became smaller again.
Public schools were introduced to give the rich children education outside of their house, rather than being home schooled. These schools were excessively used by the rich and their nobility, which turned the schools into public schools that we know of today (private schools). This system grew in the ear nineteenth century and sports were endured within the walls of the public schools, the sports practised were sports such as; cricket, tennis, rugby and soccer as the schools were wealthy enough to afford resources and had extensive playing fields that were required. During the introduction of public schools; rules were introduced to help structure sports, preventing cheating, which form the basis of rules and regulations within sport today/ Public schools had a great contribution to sport with the older students and rich men travelling to different places and teaching the sport they enjoy whilst in that place, whether they were there on business or visiting relatives, sport was enjoyed and relayed carrying British sporting traditions and values around the globe, which lead an increase in popularity within British developed sports. In poorer, Victorian slums factory workers and their children had little leisure time to speak of other than street and pub games, as they worked 70 hours per week. However, there was many more public holidays than there are now, Bills went through parliament in the late 1800's and which gave us the bank holidays that be have today, the victorians also created parks, playing fields, and victorian baths.
Medieval pursuits consisted of; drinking, dancing, cock-fighting, bear-baiting, dog-fighting, gambling, bare-fist fighting. The local hostelry however was the place where all the more gentle leisure pursuits were held, ranging from bowls, skittles and billiards. The sporting pursuits were varied dependent on the wealth that you had behind you. The poorer "peasants" would endure mob football, however they would also demonstrate skill in in activities like archery. The "ordinary" people were unable to endure activities such as hunting on neighbouring land due to game laws that prevented them from doing so, however for the rich, it was definitely an option for their leisure pastimes, they also travelling and sailing on the coast. Although this varied within the "richer" class of medieval citizens, dependant on their wealth, so the richer rich citizens, (such as; noblemen) would have more extravagant medieval version of yachts, and the less wealthier rich people would have boats just bigger than the average medieval fishing boat.
Rationalisation and Regulation.
The development of rationalism in sport was in public schools, and it was spread by old boys, church and school masters that worked in local communities. Sport was developed and seen to keep school boys and the working class out of trouble whilst also developing skills and virtues. Organised games began and became ever present at public schools and for the most part they were unapproved by teachers, however as they became more present the teachers became more favourable of the games that were practised as they noticed they could include the games within educational purposes.