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Civil War Timeline

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by

Meg Orchard

on 31 December 2015

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Transcript of Civil War Timeline

1861
1862
1860
1863
Civil War Timeline: 1861-1863
Nov 1860: Lincoln Elected President
April 12-14, 1861: Shots at Fort Sumter
last federal fort in seceded territory; it was still under construction; had only commander Robert Anderson & 87 men
Anderson & his men were out of supplies, but refused to surrender so Confederates led by PGT Beauregard fired at 4:30AM from Fort Johnson, Morris Island, and Sullivan's Island.
After 34 hours and nearly 3,000 artillery shots fired, the Union forces surrendered the fort to the South. Not one soldier was killed
April to June 1861:
VA, AR, NC, & TN secede
July 1861: First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas
Nov 1861: Port Royal Captured
First major loss in the war for the Confederacy
Anaconda Plan
Part One:
BLOCKADE
Port Royal will be a
base for the blockade
A place from which to
launch attacks on Charleston
Raid the interior of South Carolina
Led to the
Port Royal Experiment
How will slaves react to freedom?
Harriet Tubman
comes to help free slaves
May 1862: Robert Smalls
Robert Smalls
and his crew of slaves,
stole
the
Confederate ship, the C.S.S. Planter
, picked up his family at a rendezvous point
Smalls,
disguised as the Captain
, successfully passed Confederate checkpoints and
escaped Charleston Harbor
He successfully
freed 17 slaves
, then lobbied Congress to being to enlist black recruits (he recruited 5,000 himself)
He went on to
served honorably in the U.S. Navy
in many engagements & later became a representative
in the U.S. Congress from SC
Sept 1862: Battle of Antietam
Bloodiest Single Day in American History
Dec. 1860 - Feb. 1861:
SC, MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, & TX secede
Feb 1861: Jefferson Davis named President of CSA
Fort Sumter
Fort Sumter
April 12-14, 1861
First Battle of Bull Run
http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/american-civil-war-history/videos/first-battle-of-bull-run
Hollywood's Version:
North & South
First Battle of Bull Run
first major battle of the war; both sides were inexperienced
Union Gen. Irvin McDowell led troops from D.C. to attack Confederates at Manassas (or along Bull Run Creek)
Confederate forces were driven back to Henry Hill, but reinforcements later broke the Union's right flank
Union retreated & Confederates won the battle
Effect: everyone realized that the war would not be easily won;
Sidenote: Gen. Jackson earned nickname "Stonewall"
Port Royal Experiment: 1861-1865
after Port Royal was captured, southerners fled and left their slaves
the Union soldiers freed approx. 10,000 slaves
the freedmen, called "
Contraband
" worked the land for money and even purchased land
Gideon's Band
: Northern missionaries and teachers who open schools
1st Regiment of SC Volunteers
: Freedmen put to work as soldiers
Sea Island Schools
March 1862: Monitor vs. Virginia (Merrimack)
first battle between two iron-clad ships
changed naval warfare
the Virginia had successfully sunk wooden ships on March 8th, but the engagement with the Monitor was a draw
June 1862: Union Attacks Charleston

Battle of Secessionville
also called Ft. Lamar
Confederate victory
Union retreats back to Port Royal
Robert Smalls
Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)
first battle on Union soil
Gen McClellan (Union) had chased Robert E. Lee's forces into Maryland
the battle went back and forth with each side gaining temporary advantages
Lee (outnumbered 2 to 1) used his entire force, while McClellan used just 3/4ths of his troops
Eventually McClellan had halted Lee's movement into the North, but failed to actually finish off Lee's army (so technically a Union win)
Effects of Antietam
Lincoln felt it was a decisive victory enough to deliver his Emancipation Proclamation

McClellan proved ineffective, even in victory, and was eventually relieved of his command
Battle of Antietam
http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/battle-of-antietam
Combahee Raid
http://www.libertyletters.com/resources/civil-war/harriet-tubman-civil-war-spy.php

Harriet Tubman: Civil War Spy
From Port Royal, the Union sends troops to attack Charleston through James Island
Brothers Battle on JI
http://www.teachingushistory.org/flash_files/Page1NEW_023.swf
http://www.teachingushistory.org/flash_files/Page2NEW_021.swf
http://www.teachingushistory.org/flash_files/Page3NEW_013.swf
http://www.teachingushistory.org/flash_files/Page4NEW_007.swf
http://www.teachingushistory.org/flash_files/Page5NEW_002.swf
http://www.teachingushistory.org/lessons/Campbellpapers.htm
Transcript
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