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Biological Diversity 2013
Transcript of Biological Diversity 2013
4.25.2012 Major categories of ecosystem services Provisioning Cultural Regulating Supporting How should we assign monetary value to ecosystem services? Ecosystem services
*essential goods and services that natural ecosystems deliver to people (Daly 1997)
*the benefits that all living things obtain from ecosystems Organic Act of 1897
Establishment of national forests to "improve and protect the forest within the boundaries, or for the purpose of securing favorable conditions of water flows, and to furnish a continuous supply of timber for the use and necessities of citizens of the United States".
1st step toward legislation concerning management, protection, and care of the nation's forest reserves
Granted Department of Interior authority in rule-making and regulations of reserves
Gave USGS responsibility of mapping reserves Goods provided by nature that humans use as food, fuel, drinking water, building materials, medicine Asthetic, spiritual, educational, recreational Services that control natural processes in ways that are favorable to humans.
Water filtration Biogeochemical and ecological processes needed for production of all other ecocystem services
Oxygen production Are ecosystem services connected to biodiversity? Biological Diversity
4.24.2013 Ecosystem Services Potential medicines from Amphibians Alkaloid toxins Compounds in skin of tropical frogs that taste bitter to predators
More than 800 alkaloids have been found more than 50 species in family Dendrobatidae!
Get the building blocks from eating alkaloid ants, mites, beetles and millipedes Panamanian Poison Frog Contain alkaloids that may strengthen contraction of heart Ecuadorian Poison Frog Contain alkaloids with pain-killing potency 200x morphine Potential medicines from Amphibians Antimicrobial agents Amphibians live is a great variety of habitats with a great number of pathogens
They are vulnerable to skin infections because water moves through skin
So their skin and gut have lots of antimicrobial compounds
Crucial as antibiotic resistance among pathogens grow like methicillin-resistant Staphlyococcus aureus (MRSA) African Clawed Frog Has antibacterial agents on skin and in gut that cause bacteria to break apart. "frog-skins are a real pharmacopeia" http://amphibianrescue.org/tag/why-frogs-matter/ "And what is there to life if a man cannot hear the lonely cry of a whippoorwill or the arguments of the frogs around a pond at night?"
-- Chief Seattle, 1854