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Euthanasia

By Spike, Emily, AIDANTH, 499 and Theresa
by

spike woods

on 6 August 2013

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Transcript of Euthanasia

Euthanasia

Pros and Cons
Pros: • Medical supplies can be used on people who have a chance of living
• Allows the patient to pass in a painless and dignified manner
• Allows families to say their goodbyes and tie up “loose ends”
• Everyone has the right to choose when and when not to die
• Health care costs could decrease to save for their families
• Nurse and doctors can be freed up to deal with curable patients
• Vital organs can be saved
• Without physician help, people can kill themselves in inhumane ways

Non-voluntary euthanasia happens when euthanasia is performed on an person because the person cannot make a decision or cannot make their wishes known. This includes cases where:

• the person is in a coma
• the person is too young (e.g. a very young baby)
• the person is senile
• the person is mentally retarded to a very severe extent
• the person is severely brain damaged


An example of non-voluntary euthanasia is when a doctor gives a lethal injection to an incompetent elderly man who is suffering greatly from an advanced terminal disease, but who did not make his wishes known to the physician when he was competent.

What Communities in Australia allow Euthanasia?
What are different types of euthanasia?
voluntary euthanasia (with the consent of the patient);
non-voluntar euthanasia (consent of the patient unavaiable);
involuntary euthanasia (against the will of the patient).
passive euthanasia (witholding of common treatments);
active euthanasia (use of lethal substances).
How does non-voluntary euthanasia happen?
human euthanasia;
animal euthanasia;
child euthanasia (legal in Netherlands and United Kingdom)
Why Shouldn't Euthanasia be legalized.
What thinks religion about euthanasia?
BUDDHISM: different views many are crtcal of the procedure, but someone thinks compassion is a justification.
HINDUISM: two views 1) performing a good deed and so fulfilling their moral obbligation; 2) disturbing the timing of the cycle of death and rebirth.
ISLAM: against all forms of suicide.
JUDAISM: differnt views; generally oppose voluntary euthanasia, but some backing for voluntary passive e. in limited circumstance.
Euthanasia basically means to take a deliberate action with intention of ending a life. This is generally to relieve intractable (persistent, unstoppable) suffering.

There are two main classifications of Euthanasia, Voluntary euthanasia and involuntary euthanasia.

- Voluntary euthanasia is euthanasia conducted with consent,

- involuntary euthanasia is euthanasia is conducted without
consent. The decision is made by another person
because the patient is incapable to doing so himself/herself.

There are two procedural classifications of euthanasia Passive
euthanasia and active euthanasia.
What is euthanasia?
CHATOLICISM: "crime against life" and "crime against God"
PROTESTANTISM: different views.
Child euthanasia:
form of non-voluntary euthanasia applied to children who are gravely ill or suffer from significant birth defects.

By Spike, Teresa, Emily, Aidan, Denis

• Can become a means of cost containment
• Medical care people should not be involved in the cause of death
• Doctors are involved in a sworn oath that does not allow them to cause the killing of people
• Religions prohibit it
• It would prompt families to give up on recovery too soon
• Miracle cures or recovery can occur


Cons:• Devalues human life
• Doctors are given too much power
What is Euthanasia?
Euthanasia is the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma. The practice is illegal in most countries
Rules and regulations..

The choice to be euthanized must be that of the patients only
There must be a minimum of 3 witnesses (not including doctor) when making this decision
There is a waiting time for the patients to contemplate their decision
The patient must be terminally ill and all other methods of treatment should be exhausted
Insurance companies cannot stop coverage if a patient refuses euthanization

Joseph Fletcher: infanticide permitted in case of severe birth defects; child euthanasia, in such case, could be considered humane. a logical and acceptable extension of abortion.
Eric Kodish and Daniell A Beals: compared euthanasia to infanticide.
We have a lot of groups and organizations
that makes a cause towards euthanasia and to make it legal in Australia.

http://www.waves.org.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=23&Itemid=6
http://www.exitinternational.net/page/AboutUs
Australians still are voting over legalizing Euthanasia. 3/4 Australians voted yes.
This is called non-voluntary euthanasia. Non voluntary euthanasia is when the person is euthanized without their consent because they cannot make a decision or cannot make their wishes known. Some examples of situations where this would happen is the person is in a coma, the person is too young (e.g. a very young baby) or the person is mentally retarded to a very severe extent

Active non-voluntary euthanasia is illegal in
all countries in the world, although it is practised
in the Netherlands on infants under an agreement
between physicians and district attorneys that was
ratified by the Dutch National Association of
Pediatricians.

Passive non-voluntary euthanasia (withholding life support) is legal in India, Albania, and many parts of the United States and is practiced in English hospitals.

http://www.theage.com.au/national/euthanasia-wins-75-support-20110105-19g8h.html
What are the laws for when someone is medically incapable of making the decision?
Peter Suanders is a Author that showed 10 reasons that shows euthanasia shouldn't be legalized.
1. Voluntary euthanasia is unnecessary because alternative treatments exist
2.Requests for voluntary euthanasia are rarely free and voluntary
3. Voluntary euthanasia undermines medical research
4. Hard cases make bad laws
5. Autonomy is important but never absolute
6. Voluntary euthanasia leads to euthanasia tourism
7. Voluntary euthanasia changes the public conscience
8. Voluntary euthanasia violates historically accepted codes of medical ethics
9. Voluntary euthanasia gives too much power to doctors
10. Voluntary euthanasia leads inevitably to involuntary euthanasia
http://www.righttolife.com.au/index.php/life-issues/euthanasia#a
History about Euthanasia - 1500 A.D-past
Countries where Euthanasia is Legal
- Belgium, since 2002
- Columbia, but with conditions (a patient must be terminally ill, defined as cancer, AIDS, and kidney or liver failure and other extreme suffering, age. etc)
- India (only passive euthanasia)
- Ireland (still deciding on the laws and passive only)
- Japan with conditions (like Columbia)
- Mexico (passive euthanasia only)
- Luxembourg, with conditions about being terminally ill and age. etc
- Netherlands, since 2002
- Switzerland, since 1942
- USA, only Oregon, Vermont, Washington, Montana
Countries where Euthanasia is Illegal
- Australia, was once in Northern Territory in 1997 but the laws changed
- France
- Norway
New Zealand
United Kingdom
Turkey
Euthanasia has been around since 400 B.C. The Romans and Greeks used it a lot because back then people did not really care for an individual human’s life. Even though the doctors and physicians had taken an oath not to give patients harmful drugs or poison, most of them didn’t follow through with it. So the doctor prescribed whatever drug the patient wanted.
In the 1st century A.D, Christians started to disapprove of this. When someone did commit suicide, their body was dragged through the town or nailed to a post for everyone to see. Euthanasia became so rare it was frowned upon. In 1300 A.D, a catholic man named Thomas Aquinas would go to churches teaching people about how it is wrong to commit suicide, no matter what your situation. He believed that it violated the way of a natural life (living until it’s your time to die); it hurt not only the person that commit suicide but other people in the community like family and friends; it violated God’s authority over life.

From the 1600s to the 1900s, it became against the law to do any sort of act of suicide or assisted suicide, and the punishments were treated the same as abortion. There was a man named Samuel Williams that studied the use of different drugs. He used them on his patients, not just the ones that were terminally ill but any patient that wasn’t willing to live anymore. When the American Medical Association was given William’s proposal on Euthanasia, it was thrown down.
In the 1900s, there were many cases where a doctor was thrown in jail or in other means punished for performing an act of euthanasia, even if it was the best thing to do in the situation. There was a badly deformed baby that was born and he would die very quickly unless they performed life-threatening surgery. The doctor advised the family to expect the worst and they agreed to euthanasia the child. This raised huge controversy all over the world. There was another case that happened much more recently. Jack Kevorkian, who was a medicine doctor, was on an episode of 60 Minutes and he euthanized Thomas Youk. He was then convicted of murder and about 10 years later he was let out of jail. It was only really in the 2000s that people started to become more open to the idea of euthanasia. It is also when a lot of countries decided to legalise it.

History about Euthanasia - 1600s-present
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