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Eating Disorders

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by

Samantha Jackson

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of Eating Disorders

Myths How ED's Are Experienced Causes What is Anorexia Nervosa Resources People with eating disorders never eat A refusal* to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height Symptoms Extreme weight loss
Fatigue
Dizziness and/or fainting
Hair that thins or falls out
Soft downy hair that covers the body (arms)
Constantly cold
Low blood pressure Signs Denying hunger
Refusal to eat
Intense fear of gaining weight
Cutting up food into pieces, picking at it and moving it around but not actually eating it
Preoccupation with cooking but not eating the food that they are making
Body distortion Achieving normal weight means the anorexia is cured Individuals who have eating disorders are only seeking attention Thinning of the bones
Brittle hair and/or nails
Dry and yellowish skin
Anemia and muscle wasting and weakness
Low blood pressure
Damage to heart and brain
Infertility
Lethargy
Multi-organ failure
Death Hunger vs. Appetite Long Term Damage The majority of energy comes from carbohydrates

After carbohydrates the body uses lipid and protein

When the body has no energy to utilize it starts breaking down nutrients within the body

First it will deplete it's own fat storage, then it will deplete it's protein storage What Makes Recovery Difficult? Neuroplasticity Hunger is the PHYSIOLOGICAL need to eat Appetite is the PSYCHOLOGICAL desire to eat Can be affected by other factors such as
medications
hormones
disease states What happens in the body? Samantha Kraft Eating Disorder Diagnoses Quick Facts Anorexia Nervosa Eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and excessive weight loss Bulimia Nervosa Characterized by a cycle of binging and compensatory behaviors to undo or compensate effects of binge eating Binge Eating Disorder Characterized by recurrent binge eating behavior without compensatory measures EDNOS A person does not have to be diagnosed with the above to have an eating disorder

EDNOS is a catch all for those who don't meet all criteria for the above diagnoses but who have a combination of signs and symptoms Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Binge Eating Disorder
Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) By age 6, girls begin to express concerns about their own weight or shape There has been a rise in incidence of anorexia in young women (15-19) in each decade since 1930

Half of teenage girls and one-third of teenage boys use unhealthy weight control behaviors Average BMI of Miss America winners has decreased from 22 in the 1920s to 16.9 in 2000s. Normal BMI is considered to be between 18.5 and 24.9 Treatment Cost of an Eating Disorder Psychological Factors Low self-esteem
Lack control in life
Depression, anxiety, anger, stress or loneliness Social Factors Interpersonal Factors Biological Factors Possible biochemical/biological causes still being researched

Certain chemicals control hunger, appetite and digestion have been found to be unbalanced

Eating disorders run in families

Current research points to a significant genetic contribution Unknown but include many factors Trouble in personal relationships

Difficulty expressing emotions and feelings

History of being teased because of weight

History of physical or sexual abuse Cultural pressures that glorify thinness

Cultural norms that value physical appearance rather than inner qualities and strengths

Stress related to racial, ethnic, weight-related discrimination My Experiences Began losing weight Fall 2009


Drastic weight lost in those few months - lost about a third of my body weight Changes Tired and sluggish all the time

Evidence of liver damage

Low blood pressure (58/78-80 was my normal)

Fainting

Consequences of physical activity*

Anxiety and compulsive behaviors Comorbidity Anxiety and depression

Creates problems for treatment and recovery

Have 2 or 3+ illnesses to treat instead of just 1 Multi-disciplinary approach Inpatient Treatment Hospital, residential care, or eating disorder specialty unit

Goal is rehabilitation

This only occurs when the patients physical health is at a severe risk

Not a long term solution Outpatient Treatment Can be very effective method

Includes individual group or family therapy and medical management

Support groups, nutrition counseling Maudsley Method Phase I: Weight Restoration
Phase II: Returning Control to Adolescent
Phase III: Establishing Healthy Adolescent Identity Maudsley Approach Stats most effective treatment option parents and patients have Study by University of Chicago....
After one year, 49% of those in MA were in full remission-23% in individual therapy (IT)
10% relapse rates in MA compared to 40% in IT
MA has a total of 45 people who came out of treatment succesful; IT has just under 10 people Ability to change

Ability of our brain to rewire neuronal pathways Implications of Neuronal Pathways on Recovery Thoughts persist even after treatment

Took time to create these new pathways it will take time and hard work to overcome them and make new ones 1999-2006 hospitalizations for ED's grew 119% among children under 12 Residential program costs $30,000 a month (those in inpatient facilities usually require 3+ months of treatment)

In addition to residential programs are regular therapy visits that persist into recovery

Insurance companies will not cover long term treatments

Some deny adequate coverage entirely on the grounds of there not being enough evidence on how best to treat them National Eating Disorder Association (NEDA) National Institute of Mental Health "Brave Girl Eating" by Harriet Brown "For instance, Alzheimer's disease affects roughly 5.1 million people, and the National institutes of Health funded $450 million in research in 2011. Eating disorders affect about 30 million people, yet ED research got only $28 million from the NIH this year -- less than 10 percent of the funding for Alzheimer's, for an illness that affects six times as many people. I think this discrepancy comes from the fact that eating disorders are still seen as disorders of choice in a way. The textbook definition of anorexia is that it's a "refusal" to eat. As I watched my daughter go through this, I quickly came to understand that she wasn't refusing to eat; she was unable to eat. There's a big difference. " -Harriet Brown, author of "Brave Girl Eating" You can never fully recover from an eating disorder. Anorexia is the third most common illness in adolescents

Mortality rates: 4% AN, 3.9% BN, 5.2% for EDNOS

24 million people suffer from an ED in the U.S.

20% of those with AN will die from heart problems or suicide National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders Questions?? kraft.sama@uwlax.edu What You Need to Know About Eating Disorders
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