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THE HISTORY OF EARTH AND LIFE

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by

Ivan Chen

on 5 April 2016

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Transcript of THE HISTORY OF EARTH AND LIFE

Snowball Earth (#1)
Glaciers deposit sediments.
Grooves in bedrock in Central Park show evidence of a glacier whose thickness was twice the height of the Empire State Building.
Impressions that glaciers left caused the Great Lakes.
It is commonly recognized by scientists that we are currently living in a warm period between ice ages.
Earth became a granite planet.
Undersea volcanic activity lead to continents being formed due to cracks in the Earth's crust.
Oxygen rusted the iron in the oceans and gave them the green-blue color they have now.
~2.5 billion
~3.5 billion
Today
~4.5 billion
~1.5 billion
THE HISTORY OF EARTH AND LIFE
by: Fogedawg, Chendawg, Culldawg, and Yeungdawg

Earth began as a world of fire and was formed by the bombardment of meteors.
Subterranean radioactivity prevented cooling.
4.4 billion years ago, radioactivity slowed so the surface cooled and water formed.
Theory: water-rich comets brought water into our atmosphere.
4.1 million years ago, water vapor + CO2 led to huge clouds which cased it to rain for millions of years leading to our "Water world" of 90% ocean.
~3.5 to ~2.5 Billion Years Ago
LIFE APPEARED AT 3.8-5 BILLION YEARS AGO!!!!!!!!!

2.5 billion years ago, single-celled organisms fed off of heat energy.
Chemoautotrophs, found by deep sea vents, use carbon dioxide to oxidize inorganic material for energy.
ex: Later, Stromatolites (microorganisms that secrete rock) were first to use photosynthesis. This released oxygen into the atmosphere.
~3.5 to ~2.5 Continued
~1.5 Billion Years Ago
Oxygen around1% of current level and climbing.
Continents (oceanic plates) were on the move.
Rhodinia (first super continent) formed 1 billion years ago. It was a lifeless, barren land.
700 million years ago, Rhodinia's position caused a snowball earth which challenged primitive lifeforms.
Water currents were blocked, causing an ice age that was intensified by the ice blocking the sun.
~500 Million Years Ago
~250 Million Years Ago
~125 Million Years Ago
~4.5 Billion Years Ago
Prokaryotes
eukaryotes
multi-cellular
simple animals
~125 million
land plants
Hadean Era
Archean Era
Proterozoic Era

Paleozoic Era
Mesozoic Era
~2 Million Years Ago
Our ancestors took their first steps and began to migrate out of Africa.
Glaciers were descending from the
arctic (ice age starting).
Triggered by overflowing land
bridges in Panama and altered
ocean currents.
~65 Million Years Ago
A super meteor hit the Earth and wiped out 70% of species.
Evidence supports this theory because scientists found a 65-million-year-old, 100-mile wide crater in New Mexico and Iridium (a compound found in meteors) was found in the large tombstone layer in rock formations.
The meteor vaporized the Earth's crust. Lava flow in India + meteor = clouds of toxic dust which blocked the sun and 76% of species.
~50 Million Years Ago
Life began to recover. Mammals flourished and erosion + plate tectonics created the landscape we have today.
Tectonic plate collisions and overlapping created mountain ranges and canyons.
Climate began to cool again, leading to more glaciation.
The Future
MR. TORRES'S BIRTHDAY IS TOMORROW
In 15,000 years a new ice age may occur.
Life on Earth should continue for another 1 million years.
Plate tectonics will cause entire countries to disappear and in 240 million years, Pangea Ultima will form.
In 2 billion years, the plate tectonic cycle will wear out and cause Mars-like conditions.
Early Proterzoic
Vendian
Cambrian
Cenozoic Era
Ordovician
Silurian
Devonian
Carboniferous
Permian
Triassic
Jurassic
Cretaceous
Hot mantle surged upwards for 1 million years. This created poisonous gas which killed 95% of all species.
Pangea formed 240 million years ago. O2 and CO2 levels rose to new peaks and out
of the 5% of animals that survived,
dinosaurs evolved.
Due to mass extinction, natural
selection occurred and the
remaining species evolved faster.
Palogene
Neogene
Quarternary
180 million years ago, volcanic eruptions that lasted 80 million years split Pangea into the continents we know today.
Temperatures increased and the world was lush with huge tropical forests.
These temperatures allowed
dinosaurs to flourish.
Geological Effects Apparent Today
~2 million
~50 million
~65 million
680 million years ago, accumulated heat broke through the ice sheet and ended the ice age. The volcanic eruptions broke Rhodinia apart as well. Sea level rose.
500 million years ago, animals began to become increasingly complex and life exploded.
The ozone layer was created due to increased life on land. Oxygen levels similar to now.
300 million years ago, a new super-continent was formed that was mostly swamp land.
Cyanobacteria
Amphibians
Reptiles
Mammals
Birds
Flowers
Seeds
The Future
~500 million
~250 million
Formation of the Earth.
Land and water started forming
and prokaryotic life began.
Eukaryote Cells appeared and continental drift occurred creating a super continent and an ice age.
Animals and Plants began to evolve
and become more complex.
Oxygen levels rose because of
land plants.
AGE OF THE DINOSAURS!!!!! RAWR!
Ferns
Formation of modern day continents and their inhabitants, including humans can be traced back to this era.
Sea level drops
Ice Age (#2)
Full transcript