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Prezi #9 Case Study Enzymes (in class)
Transcript of Prezi #9 Case Study Enzymes (in class)
Case Study #1
A six month old baby boy was born and developing normally until recently when his mother reports that has been flinching at loud noises and can no longer sit up or roll over on his own. These were all milestones he had previously met. He does not hold eye contact with his parents anymore and does not seem to recognize them.
The physical exam confirms all of the above observations from the parents as well as a central red area surrounded by white tissue on the retina of the eye. The parents are both Jewish and of Eastern European dissent.
Case Study #2
So what is happening in albinism?
Definition: a protein that functions as a biological catalyst by increasing the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
--lowers the energy barrier
--Energy of Activation
So what is happening with Tay Sach's disease?
--Caused by insufficient activity of an enzyme called beta-hexosaminidase A.
--Without the enzyme, fatty acids cannot overcome the energy of activation in order to break down.
--these fatty acids (used in cell membranes and called gangliosides) build up in the brain.
You are veterinarian at a zoo and have been brought a new gorilla that has been captured. The gorilla has white hair instead of black. His skin is a tan color and his eyes are light blue.
You find on examination that he has vision problems and several lesions on his skin that make you suspicious of skin cancer.
-- tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction to make melanin (skin pigment)
--the problem is in the active site of the tyrosinase
THE ACTIVE SITE IN THE tyrosinase
IN AN ANIMAL WITH ALBINISM IS DIFFERENT FROM A NORMAL PERSON. IT CANNOT BIND THE SUBSTRATE IT IS SUPPOSED TO IN ORDER TO MAKE MELANIN.
Cofactors: inorganic molecules that enzymes require in order to function. Example: copper
Coenzymes: organic molecules that enzymes require in order to function. Example: vitamins
Case Study #3
A fifteen year old girl has come to your office today complaining of a fever, painfully sore throat, and inability to eat.
You examine her and do a throat culture. The throat culture comes up positive for Gram Positive bacteria (streptococcus).
This time, you know the diagnosis, and now must research the treatment.
What drug will you use?
How does penicillin work?
--bacteria make and break down their cell wall continuously.
--bacteria use an enzyme, transpeptidase, in the final stage of cell wall synthesis.
--penicillin attaches to the active site and blocks this synthesis
--without a cell wall, the bacteria cannot regulate osmosis and they explode.
How is penicillin like an enzyme inhibitor?
Your body uses enzyme inhibitors all the time
to regulate enzyme activity. They are not just
used in medications.
FEEDBACK INHIBITION -- What happens here?
Sum it up:
Example: ATP inhibits Glycolysis
by joining an enzyme early in the
process to shut it down.