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RedBio

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eko digao

on 21 October 2015

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Transcript of RedBio

RedBio
Production of bioplastic by algae
Team:
Esaú Oliva Leaño
Lizette González
Takehiro Osawa
Enrique Domínguez
Professor: Dra. María Mercedes Roca
The idea
References
Pacheco, G., Flores, N.C. & Rodríguez-Sanoja, R. (2014). Bioplásticos. Departamento de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, UNAM, México D.F. Vol. 18. No. 2. Retrieved September 7, 2015, from http://www.smbb.com.mx/revista/Revista_2014_2/bioplasticos.pdf

González García, Y., Meza Contreras, J.C., González Reynoso, O., & Córdova López, J.A. (2013). Síntesis y biodegradación de polihidroxialcanoatos: plásticos de origen microbiano. Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental, 29(1), 77-115. Retrieved from: http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-49992013000100007&lng=es&tlng=es.

Bozarth, A., Maier, U. G. & Zauner, S. Diatoms in biotechnology: modern tools and applications. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 82, 195–201 (2009). Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00253-008-1804-8

Hempel F, Bozarth AS, Lindenkamp N, et al. (2011). Microalgae as bioreactors for bioplastic production. Microbial Cell Factories. Retrieved from http://www.microbialcellfactories.com/content/pdf/1475-2859-10-81.pdf.

Hänggi, U. J. (1990). Springer . Pilot scale production of PHB with Alcaligenes latus. Retrieved September 7, 2015, from: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94-009-2129-0_6#

Bligh, E., & Dyer, W. (1959). Extraction of Lipids in Solution by the Method of Bligh & Dyer. Retrieved September 7, 2015, from http://www.tabaslab.com/protocols/BlighDyer.pdf

Olmstead, I. L., Kentish, S. E., Scales, P. J., & Martin, G. J. (12 de Septiembre de 2013). Low solvent, low temperature method for extracting biodiesel lipids from concentrated microalgal biomass. Retrieved September 7, 2015 from www.elsevier.com/locate/biortech

Roland-Host, D. et al. (September 30, 2013). Bioplastics in California: Economic assessment of market conditions for PHA/PHB bioplastics produced from waste-methane. University of California Berkeley. Retrieved September 7, 2015, from http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/publications/Documents/1469%5C20131469.pdf

LEY DE BIOSEGURIDAD DE ORGANISMOS GENÉTICAMENTE MODIFICADOS (18 March, 2005). Cámara de Diputados del H. Congreso de la Unión. Retrieved September 7th, 2015, from http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/LBOGM.pdf

Rubio Reyes, SO. (2013). Bachelor Thesis: “Revisión de los avances en el desarrollo de polímeros biodegradables, su producción y comercialización en México para su uso en envase y embalaje (Packaging)”. Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro. Retrieved from http://ri.uaq.mx/bitstream/123456789/1124/1/RI000582.pdf


SELECTION OF THE ALGAE AND CULTURE

Bozarth, A., Maier, U. G. & Zauner, S. Diatoms in biotechnology: modern tools and applications. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 82, 195–201 (2009). Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00253-008-1804-8

Diatoms have played a decisive role in the ecosystem for millions of years as one of the foremost set of oxygen synthesizers on earth and as one of the most important sources of biomass in oceans. Previously, diatoms have been almost exclusively limited to academic research with little consideration of their practical uses beyond the most rudimentary of applications. Efforts have been made to establish them as decisively useful in such commercial and industrial applications as the carbon neutral synthesis of fuels, pharmaceuticals, health foods, biomolecules, materials relevant to nanotechnology, and bioremediators of contaminated water. Progress in the technologies of diatom molecular biology such as genome projects from model organisms, as well as culturing conditions and photobioreactor efficiency, may be able to be combined in the near future to make diatoms a lucrative source of novel substances with widespread relevance.

Introduction
González García, Y., Meza Contreras, J.C., González Reynoso, O., & Córdova López, J.A. (2013). Síntesis y biodegradación de polihidroxialcanoatos: plásticos de origen microbiano. Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental, 29(1), 77-115. Retrieved from: http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-49992013000100007&lng=es&tlng=es.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biopolyesters synthesized by numerous microorganisms as an intracellular carbon and energy storage compound, and they have physical and chemical properties similar to those of petroleum-based plastics. PHB is the first discovered PHA and also the most widely studied and best characterized one.They have been extensively studied since 1980, nowadays they are still an important research topic as substitutes of conventional plastics since PHA are biodegradable and synthesized from renewable resources. They also have an important application as biocompatible materials in the biomedical and pharmaceutical field. In this work is presented an extensive bibliographic review about scientific research on the biosynthesis and biodegradation of PHA, the status of its industrial production and commercialization, and the future perspectives regarding the study and application of these bioplastics.

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF THE ALGAE WITH BACTERIAL GENES

Hempel F, Bozarth AS, Lindenkamp N, et al. (2011). Microalgae as bioreactors for bioplastic production. Microbial Cell Factories. Retrieved from http://www.microbialcellfactories.com/content/pdf/1475-2859-10-81.pdf.

In this study, they reported on introducing the bacterial PHB pathway of R. eutropha H16 into the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, thereby demonstrating for the first time that PHB production is feasible in a microalgal system. Expression of the bacterial enzymes was sufficient to result in PHB levels of up to 10.6% of algal dry weight. The bioplastic accumulated in granule-like structures in the cytosol of the cells, as shown by light and electron microscopy. They demonstrated the great potential of microalgae like the diatom P. tricornutum to serve as solar-powered expression factories and reveal great advantages compared to plant based production systems.

General overview for pilot scale production

Hänggi, U. J. (1990). Springer . Pilot scale production of PHB with Alcaligenes latus. Retrieved September 7, 2015, from: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94-009-2129-0_6#

In order to introduce a new product into an existing market it is not enough to have an interesting product, one also has to have a process to produce it at competitive costs. This holds also for biodegradable plastics. If such plastics have to be successful in the market the production processes and the costs for producing them have to be carefully evaluated. I am going to focus on this aspect and to present the results of our experiments aimed at producing polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) at competitive costs.

Extraction

Bligh, E., & Dyer, W. (1959). Extraction of Lipids in Solution by the Method of Bligh & Dyer. Retrieved September 7, 2015, from http://www.tabaslab.com/protocols/BlighDyer.pdf

For each 1 ml of sample, add 3.75 ml 1:2 (v/v) CHCl3:MeOH and vortex well. If you will be subjecting the lipids to GC analysis, this solvent should include the final amount of internal standard (e.g., 5 µg β-sitosterol). Then add 1.25 ml CHCl3 and vortex well. Finally add 1.25 ml dH2O and vortex well. Centrifuge at 1000 RPM in IEC table-top centrifuge for 5 min at room temperature to give a two-phase system (aqueous top, organic bottom). Recover the bottom phase as follows: insert Pasteur pipette through the upper phase with gentle positive-pressure (i.e., gentle bubbling) so that the upper phase does not get into the pipette tip. When pipette tip is at the bottom of the tube, carefully withdraw bottom phase through the pipette, making sure to avoid interface or upper face (should only try to recover ~90% of bottom phase, not all of it).

ECONOMIC CONCERNS

Roland-Host, D. et al. (September 30, 2013). Bioplastics in California: Economic assessment of market conditions for PHA/PHB bioplastics produced from waste-methane. University of California Berkeley. Retrieved September 7, 2015, from http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/publications/Documents/1469%5C20131469.pdf

We conducted an analysis to determine the economic viability of a 1,000 metric tons annually (kt p.a.) PHB production facility located at a California landfill or WWTF. The results of our model suggest that such a facility could be economically viable within a range of conditions. Using the baseline parameters explained in this report, we find that a production facility has a positive net present worth (NPW)* for any PHB resin price above $1.17/kg ($0.53/lb). This value is highly sensitive to our modeling assumptions and we have carried out a variety of sensitivity analyses in order to determine the degree to which our assumptions will affect the NPW of a facility.

Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of the following parameters on the project NPW:
The Stanford estimated PHB yield and energy requirements.
Energy procurement method and landfill gas (LFG) collection status.
Equipment capital costs and annual operating and maintenance (O&M) costs (including labor).
Polymer extraction and nutrient costs. PHB price.

REGULATION
LEY DE BIOSEGURIDAD DE ORGANISMOS GENÉTICAMENTE MODIFICADOS (18 March, 2005). Cámara de Diputados del H. Congreso de la Unión. Retrieved September 7th, 2015, from http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/LBOGM.pdf

Law of Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms
This law regulates the confined utilization, experimental liberation, liberation in pilot program, commercial liberation, commercialization, importation and exportation of organisms genetically modified, with the purpose of prevent, avoid or reduce the possible risks that this activities could generate to human health or to the environment and biological diversity, or to animal and plant sanity.
Rubio Reyes, SO. (2013). Bachelor Thesis: “Revisión de los avances en el desarrollo de polímeros biodegradables, su producción y comercialización en México para su uso en envase y embalaje (Packaging)”. Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro. Retrieved from http://ri.uaq.mx/bitstream/123456789/1124/1/RI000582.pdf

The use of biopolymers as raw material for the development of packaging, it is still important in Mexico, so that the provision of such polymers is limited.
For the development of sustainable packaging, the use of such materials is a important, however, is not the only one. Multiple factors influence sustainable product development: standards, production processes and lifecycles design strategies. With the aim to give designers and tools overview of the state of the art of sustainable packaging in our country, these factors are some of the topics included in this study.
Mexico requires the development of a comprehensive policy for sustainable to translate the disadvantage that the country is in a rich source of development opportunities, since Mexico has not yet understood the need to develop sustainable products; It has begun to be aware of the problem but there is still much confusion and ignorance.
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