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Writing Process

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by

Mr. A Burns

on 23 September 2013

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Transcript of Writing Process

Thinking
and
Generating Ideas
Researching and Gathering Information
Note Making
Organizing
Drafting
Reviewing
and
Revising
Editing
and
Polishing

Presenting
and
Sharing
Formulating Questions
Start Exploring Ideas
Connect to prior knowledge
Choose your Topic
Develop research questions
Exploring Stage
This is the collection stage. Information can be gathered from a variety of sources -- personal knowledge and experience, talking with others, or reading and viewing related texts
Investigating Stage
Decide on your focus
Design your research plan
Find resources
Evaluate resources
Record bibliographic information
Read for information
Collect and organize relevant data, evidence, and/or information from primary and secondary sources and/or fields of studies
Make notes

Processing Stage
Analyze the information you have found using different types of graphic organizers as appropriate
Evaluate ideas
Organize and synthesize your findings
Make connections between ideas
Make judgements
Formulate conclusions
Accessing Information
Locate a variety of appropriate and reliable resources
Analyze resources for accuracy, bias, currency and authority
Select best and most suitable resources
Record a list of resources
Nonfiction
Reading for Meaning

Involves the student in reading, listening, or viewing new information, synthesizing it, and then recording important information in a manner that is useful at a later date. It is important that notes be accurate, and written in the student's own words, not simply lifted from the text. During this part of the process, meaning-making is occurring, and it is meaning that the student will try to make and convey through his/her research.
Organizing involves the writer in making decisions about the structure of a piece.
This includes identifying main ideas, determining a framework, grouping similar ideas,
and sequencing this information. This is all about the writer determining the flow
and deciding how best to achieve his/her purpose.
The writer gets ideas on paper and begins to develop the piece. During this part of the process, a lot of information may be recorded that may be changed or eliminated at a later stage.
Formulate questions related to the applicable overall expectation in order to identify the focus of their inquiry
Social Studies Inquiry Component
Social Studies Inquiry Component
Gathering and Organizing Information,
Evidence, and/or Data

Social Studies Inquiry Component
Collect and organize relevant data, evidence, and/or information from primary and secondary and/or fields of study
Interpret and Analyze
Analyze the data, evidence, and information, using different types of graphic organizers as appropriate
Social Studies Inquiry Component
Evaluate and Draw Conclusions
Synthesize data, evidence and/or information, and make informed, critical judgements based on that data, evidence, and/or information
Social Studies Inquiry Component
Communicate
Communicate judgements, decisions, conclusions, predictions, and/or plans of action clearly and logically
Creating Stage
Extend and transfer learning
Assemble your culminating project
Present your findings to a larger audience
Assess your own product and learning process
This involves reading the written draft and making decisions about what to keep, change, or eliminate. the emphasis at this point is on improving the substance of the piece. Revising requires the writer to look at the meaning that has been recorded and to try to ensure that what has been written achieves his/her purpose for writing.
Editing is the process of making smaller changes or fine tuning the text in order to produce a piece of writing that achieves its purpose and is ready to share with others. This may include correcting spelling, punctuation, use of capital letters, grammar, paragraphing, and sentence structure. At this time writers may also improve word choice.
This is the process of creating the final piece and making it available to others.
This is when the writer considers both his/her expertise, and determines what to write about. It is also the process of generating ideas for a piece of writing, either assigned or selected. Ideas are not only those specific to the content or the information that the writer wishes to convey, but also include those about how he/she will convey this message through writing.
7 Nonfiction
Text Structures
Nonfiction
Text Features
5 Nonfiction
Reading Strategies
Refer to the features that help a reader navigate through a book to locate specific information. They include:
organizational features -- such as titles, tables of contents, glossary, headings and subheadings
visual features -- such as labels, captions, illustrations, diagrams, graphs, tables, maps and timelines
graphic features -- such as bold and italic words

(From Text Structures, Dillabough pg ix)
Refer to how a text is organized and the specific patterns of organization that authors use to inform, describe and explain. Example "Sequence", "Compare and Contrast"


A good reader is metacognitive -- aware of and able to use and articulate thinking strategies used while interacting with text:
Make Connections
Ask Questions
Visualize
Draw inferences
Determine importance
Analyze and Synthesize
Monitor comprehension
Seven Structures
Procedural /Sequence
Enumerative
This structure lists things that are examples of a main topic. Point one is described then point two, and so on. This is similar to sequence but in this case order is not important. This structure is used frequently in conjunction with other structures.
eg.
listing effects in a Cause and Effect structure
listing solutions in a problem solution structure
listing reasons in persuasive writing
Signal Words
first
second
third
then
also
for instance
for example
to begin with
furthermore
most important
more
next
finally
in fact
at last
another
some other
in addition
Signal Words
first
second
third
next
meanwhile
on (date)
not long after
today
tomorrow
once
soon
final (ly)
at last
now
before
after
while
then
later
Compare and Contrast
This structure shows similarities and/or differences between two or more items, such as objects, events, people or ideas. There are a number of ways these paragraphs can be developed:
Similarities of two or more things can be discussed
Differences of two or more things can be discussed
Similarities and differences are both discussed in the same paragraph. This can be developed in two ways. All the similarities can be given first, followed by all the differences. Alternatively, similarities and differences can be presented for one feature at a time.
Signal Words
also (too)

similar
although
different
as ... (opposed to, well as, etc.)
similar

or
different
between
similar

or
different
both
similar

or
different
but
different
compare
similar

or
different
compared to
similar

or
different
contrast
different
difference
different
distinguish
different
even though
different
however
different
in common
similar
instead of
different
likewise

similar
more ... (than, like, etc.)
different

nevertheless
different
on one hand
different
on the other hand
different
on the contrary
different
rather
different
resembles
similar
similar
similar
unless
different
unlike
different
whereas
different
while
similar

or
different

Cause and Effect
In this structure, facts, events or concepts are described as happening or coming into being as a result of other factors. Used in several forms
One cause and One effect are given
"Not brushing your teeth may result in cavities."
One effect and a list of many causes are given
If the effect is erosion, causes might include erosion by water, wind, ice and living things.
One cause leading to several effects
If the cause is overlogging, the effects might be changes to habitats, smaller populations of some animals, migration of animals, and soil being washed away so new plants cannot grow
Signal Words
as a result
because
due to
this led to
nevertheless
if ... then
in order that
unless
since
so that
thus
therefore
accordingly
so
consequently
another reason
some consequences are
for this reason
on account of
Problems and Solutions
This structure gives information about a problem and offers suggestions for its solution.
Signal Words
a problem is
a solution is
the problem is resolved by
in conclusion
research shows
the evidence is
issues are
a/the reason for
one reason is
propose
conclude
resolved by
an outcome is
steps can be taken
Question and Answer
In this structure a question is posed about a topic, event, concept or idea and then answered. Often the question is highlighted in some way or included as a heading. This structure has become increasingly common in texts and juvenile non-fiction.
This structure is frequently combined with other structures.

MUST TEACH OTHER STRUCTURES BEFORE TEACHING THIS.
Signal Words
how
why
when
who
what
how many
where
as a result of
question
answer
Description
The primary purpose of descriptive paragraph writing is to describe a person, place, thing, event or concept in such a way that a picture is formed in the reader's mind. The author explains a topic (person, place, thing, event or idea) by listing characteristics, features, and examples.
Zoom-In
Active readers recognize, locate, and are able to interpret nonfiction text features
eg.
organizational features
-- such as titles, tables of contents, glossary, headings and subheadings
visual features
-- such as labels, captions, illustrations, diagrams, graphs, tables, maps and timelines
graphic features
-- such as bold and italic words
Question/Infer
Active readers ask questions
and make inferences to further
their understanding
of non-fiction texts.
Determine Importance
Active readers are able to find the main ideas in nonfiction texts.
Connect
Active readers make connections to experiences and background knowledge to enhance their understanding of nonfiction texts.
Transform / Synthesize
Active readers are able to recognize a change in their own thinking, perception, or perspective through reading a piece of nonfiction.
From Nonfiction Reading Power by Adrenne Gear Pembroke Publishers 2008
Need to explictly teach 7 nonfiction text structures and 5 nonfiction reading strategies
Must be explicitly taught
Must be explicitly taught
Note Taking
Want to distinguish note making from note taking.

Includes writing notes that are provided by the teacher. Student may copy notes from the board, or overhead or LCD projector.
From Exploring Writing in the Content Areas by Maria Carty. Pembrooke Publ. 2005
From Exploring Writing in the Content Areas by Maria Carty. Pembrooke Publ. 2005
From Exploring Writing in the Content Areas by Maria Carty. Pembrooke Publ. 2005
From Exploring Writing in the Content Areas by Maria Carty. Pembrooke Publ. 2005
From Exploring Writing in the Content Areas by Maria Carty. Pembrooke Publ. 2005
From Exploring Writing in the Content Areas by Maria Carty. Pembrooke Publ. 2005
From Exploring Writing in the Content Areas by Maria Carty. Pembrooke Publ. 2005
From Exploring Writing in the Content Areas by Maria Carty. Pembrooke Publ. 2005
Cross-Curricular and Integrated Learning
The Inquiry
Process

CROSS-CURRICULAR AND INTEGRATED LEARNING
In cross-curricular learning, students are provided with opportunities to learn and use related content and/or skills in two or more subjects. For example, all subjects, including social studies, history, and geography, can be related to the language curriculum. In social studies, history, and geography, students use a range of language skills: they build subject- specific vocabulary; they use words and graphics to communicate feelings and share and interpret information; and they read about past events and current social and environmental issues and research new information. Teachers can also use reading material about social studies, history, or geography issues in their language lessons. Similarly, social studies, history, and geography lessons can be used as a vehicle for instruction in critical literacy. Students learn to critique media messages, determining the intended audience, the authors’ intentions, the missing voices, and the underlying values. They analyse a variety of primary and secondary sources, such as letters and diaries, news stories, paintings and photographs, annotated maps, and government websites, interpreting information and assessing the strength of various positions on issues related to social studies, history, and geography.

From Social Studies Ministy Curriculum document 2013
Paragraph Features

Topic Sentence:
indicates the main that will be described in some fashion.

Signal Words:
Variety of effective adjectives and adverbs as well as language that appeals
to the readers sense (smell, touch, sounds, looks, tastes).
Similes and metaphors may be used to help add description.

Clincher Sentence:
Sums up the main idea of the paragraph.
Signal Words
Summary Questions
What specific person, place, thing, event or concept is being described?
How is the topic described? (How does it work? What does it do? What does it look like? etc.)
What are the most important attributes or characteristics?
How can the topic be classified?
A sequence pattern presents a series of events in a particular order.

This is a structure used for anything that is written in steps or in order of appearance.

For example:
if you are reading about an event in history
the instructions to a game
a recipe
or something that appears in order, like planets in the solar system
Summary Questions
What sequence of events is being described?
What are the major events or incidents that occur?
What are the steps, directions, or procedures to follow?
What must be done first, second . . . etc.?
What is the beginning event?
What other events or steps are included?
What is the final outcome, event, or step?

Paragraph Features
Topic Sentence:
Tells the reader that some topic is going to be developed sequentially.
(Creative and attention grabbing)

Clincher Sentence:
Sums up ideas in paragraph. (Simple to Creative)
Paragraph Features
Topic Sentence:
Should tell the reader what types of things will be listed.
Clincher sentence:
Purpose is to sum up the contents of the paragraph
Summary Questions

What event or topic being described or explained?
What are the reasons?
What are the causes?
What are the effects?
What are the problems?
What are the solutions?
The Evolution of Systems
Phase 3: Processing Homework

You will prepare 4 Graphic Organizers

1: Descriptive Organizer
Tell the name of system, the inventor, the year it was invented.

2: Enumerative Organizer
List the major parts/components that make up the system and describe the function of each.

3. Sequential Organizer
Use a timeline to indicate the changes that the system has undergone over time.

4. Enumerative Organizer
Describe the impacts your system has had in the world (social, economic, and /or environmental)
CAUTION
Signal words are usually absent when enumerative structures are developed in a list format (e.g bulleted, numbered, etc,.)
Today's Learning Goal

Learn to use Graphic Organizers
to analyze our research notes
Full transcript