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Crash Course in Genetics

A very brief rundown of information to help with this week's genetics discussion in Conservation Science and Community.

Patricia Idema

on 29 September 2012

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Transcript of Crash Course in Genetics

Crash Course Genetics Refresher Patricia Idema
Project Dragonfly
Conservation Science and Community
2012 Genetics Vocabulary and Brief Overview A brief instructional video about using Punnett Squares. Mendelian Genetics brightstorm2 (2010, September 1). Punnet Squares. Retrieved September 27, 2012, from http: //www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ksIajiPUAU&feature=related

TheBlindWatch (2009, March 24). Modern Genetics Confirms Evolution. Retrieved September 27, 2012, from http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CexojNPz2cU.

Author Unknown (n.d.). Virtual lab: Punnet squares. Retrieved September 27, 2012, from http ://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_05/BL_05.html. Citations A brief clip from the film "Intelligent Design on Trial" Genetics and Evolution A fun online game for practicing Punnett Squares http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_05/BL_05.html Dominant Alleles – These traits are more ‘powerful’ and overshadow recessive alleles.
Example: Brown eyes usually overpower blue eyes.
Dominant Alleles are usually represented with capital letters.
Brown eyes = B

Recessive Alleles – These traits are less ‘powerful’ and are obscured by dominant alleles.
Recessive Alleles are usually represented with lowercase letters.
Blue eyes = b Genetics – The study of heredity.

Heredity – The passing of traits from parents to offspring.

DNA – Nucleic acid that contains all instructions to build an organism, including its traits, and to keep it alive.

Chromosome – DNA that is tightly wound around histone proteins. Patricia Idema
Project Dragonfly
2012 Genetics Refresher When discussing alleles, single letter abbreviations are used.
Example: Eye color may be represented as the letter “B”

Every organism contains two alleles that code for the same trait.
Example: “BB”

Offspring receive one allele from each parent.
Mom’s alleles for eye color: “BB”
Dad’s alleles for eye color: “bb”
Offspring’s alleles for eye color: “Bb" Talking About Alleles Homologous Chromosomes – two chromosomes that have the same height, shape, and banding patterns and carry the same genes.

This means that both chromosomes (One from mom and one from dad.) code for the same gene, like eye color. Chromosomes Heterozygous is also sometimes known as “Hybrid”. Heterozygous – When alleles for the same trait are different.

Example: Rr, Tt, Bb Homozygous is also sometimes known as “Purebred”. Homozygous – When alleles for a single trait are the same.

Homozygous Recessive: rr, tt, bb
Homozygous Dominant: RR, TT, BB Phenotype Genotype rr Genotype – The allele combination of an organism.
Example: Bb

Phenotype – Physical appearance of an organism.
Example: Brown Eyes Thick or Thin Brown, Blue, or Green Tall or Short Genes = General
Non-specific qualities
Height, Eye Color, Earlobe Width

Alleles = Specific
Distinctive features of gene qualities
Eye Color
Earlobe Width Genes Vs. Alleles Gene controlling nose shape. Gene controlling eye color. Gene – A section of DNA which controls and codes for a specific trait.

Alleles – The different versions of a genetic trait. rr
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