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Interregional Unity

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by

David Salzer

on 30 November 2016

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Transcript of Interregional Unity

Interregional Unity
600-1450
Spread of Islam
Monotheistic Religion: Believe in Muhammad, Submit to Allah
Muslims
Followers of Islam
Following Muhammad's Death
Abandoned
Refused to cooperate
Declared themselves prophets
Jihad
Struggle or fight Holy War
Put to use by Caliph Abu-Bakr
Muslim armies conquered lower Egypt and Syria
Appeal, offered equality and hope
Economic benefit: not having to pay taxes
Forced Conversion Forbid
Ka'aba
An ancient black, stone structure built as a house of worship in
Mecca
Home of Muhammad and Ka'aba
From or sacred Muslim text
Qur'an
Jews and Christians initially tolerated
Acceptance of surrender

Byzantium: The New Rome
Nova Roma: New Rome
Nearly a 1,000 years after the collapse of the Western Empire, Byzantium thrived in the east

Constantinople
Church conducted in Latin
Pope had authority of all other bishops
Priests cannot marry

Church conducted in Greek or local languages
Bishops: head the Church as a group
Priests may be married

Capital of Byzantine or Eastern Empire
Located in the middle of several trade routes
Not susceptible to German attacks like the west
East
West
Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Justinian
Roman Culture, Architecture, and Christianity
Took control of Byzantium in 527 AD
Justinian Code
Uniform laws created from outdated Roman Law
Competition for Converts
The Code
The Digest
The Institutes
The Novellae
Relevant Roman Law
Summaries on law
Textbook for law students
New Laws
Hagia Sophia
One of many churches built under Justinian
Hailed as the most splendid church in the Christian World
Western Europe
Heritage of Rome, Catholic Beliefs, Germanic Customs
Repeated Invasions & Warfare
Causes
Effects
Germanic Invasions
Could not read or write
No obligation to obey government or to pay taxes
Lived by unwritten rules & tradition
Disruption of trade
Downfall of cities
Population shift
Decline of learning
Loss of common language
Benedict
Wrote strict & practical rules for monks/nuns
By 600 AD many Germanic peoples converted to Christianity
If Germans are following written law provided by Christian monks, how will Western Europe be impacted?
Christendom or churchly kingdom ruled by a pope emerges
Charlemagne
Charles the Great: Western Europe Emperor
Reunited Western Europe
Spread Christianity
Crushed a mob in Rome & was crowned emperor by the Pope
Encouraged learning
Ordered monks and nuns to open schools
Thomas Aquinas
Following Charlemagne's death
Vikings
Fearsome Scandinavian Sailors
Raided Western Europe
Gradually accepted Christianity
Argued basic religious truths could be proved by logic
Empowered through
Excommunication
banishment from the church
The Age of Faith
New Religious Orders
Restructuring
Resembled a kingdom with the pope as its head
Massive building project
Cannon Law or law of the church
Gothic
Germanic Architecture
Reached toward heaven
Stain Glass Windows
Sculptures
Wood Carvings
Problems
Simony
Lay Investiture
Priest Marriage
The Crusades
Holy War for the Holy Lands
Causes
Social
Economic
Political
Spiritual
Western Christian knights were feuding with one another. United against a common enemy.
Holy Lands are wealthy, Christians did not want to loose out.
Chance for Western Pope to gain territory in the east.
To fight/die on the Crusade was a ticket to heaven.
3,000 Mile Journey
12,000 Christian Crusaders
"God Wills it!"
(First Crusade)
7-8 more occur over the next 300 years
Ultimately Jerusalem stayed under Muslim (Saladin) control
Unsuccessful Christian Crusades resulted in multiple effects
Pope Urban II
Saladin
Effects
Social
Economic
Political
Spiritual
Trade Expanded
Church's Power (initially) Proven
Weakened Western Social Structure because so many dead Knights
Began legacy of bitterness and hatred among Christens, Jews, and Muslims
Fall of Constantinople in 1453
Weakening of Byzantium
English Government
Initially gave Kings more Power
William the Conqueror
Henry II
Richard the Lionhearted/John Softsword
Declared all England his personal property
Foundation for English Central Gov.
Introduced justice
Royal Courts, Jury, and
Common Law
English royal unified body of law
Raised taxes to finance the Crusades, resulting in revolt and
Magna Carta
Great Charter
Guaranteed basic political rights
"No taxation without representation"
Jury trial
Protection of the law
Parliament
Legislative Group
The Middle Ages and Renaissance
Feudalism
Social structure in medieval Europe
How did it work?
Lord
Kings and Queens
Vassals
Wealthy religious figures
Knights
Mounted horsemen who defended vassals
Serfs
Peasant workers or farmers who were bound to the land
Fief
Land granted by a landowner
Fief
Fief
Sustainable Land and Protection
Food & Service
Security & Military
Money & Knights
Manor: Lord's land
Tithe: Church Tax
Chivalry: Code followed by knights
Feudal Women
Powerless, just like men, but burdened by being inferior to men
Noblewomen
Peasant Women
Endless Labor
Field
Home
Child Birthing
Could inherit land
Held little property
Religious Strife
Clergy
Religious officials
Papacy (Pope) headed the Church
Pope
Bishops
Priests
Christian Community
Stable force during an era of constant turmoil
Sacraments were important religious ceremonies, that allowed all to achieve salvation
Lay Investiture
Policy in which Kings selected clergy
Pope Boniface VIII
Created an official document stating kings must obey Popes
King Philip
Disregarded Pope Boniface by taking him as a prisoner
Boniface died shortly after
Philip persuaded the choosing of a French Pope
Avignon
French city, where the new Pope moved
Commercial Revolution
Expansion of business and trade
Three Field System increased crop production and population
Formation of
Guilds
Trained youth, regulated goods, set working conditions
Apprentice
Journeyman
Master
More Workers
More Wealth
More Power
More Cities
Calamity or Recovery?
The Bubonic Plague
Deadly disease also known as the "Black Death" that killed 1/3 of the population of Europe
Causes
Effects
Began in Asia
Followed trade routes through
Italy
Spain
France
Germany
England
North Africa
People did not bathe and threw their waste into the streets
25 Million Europeans perished
25 Million Asians perished
Trade declined, prices rose
Peasant revolts
Jews blamed
Church discredited
Middle Age society was collapsing
Calamity is always followed by?
The Hundred Years War
Fought between England and France on French soil, marking the end of the Middle Ages
End of Chivalry
Longbows
Cheap, easy to carry, and deadly weapon that changed warfare
Penetrate Knights armor, reducing their impact
Introduced by the English
French Knights believed
themselves to be invincible
Treaty signed in which the English would inherit the French Crown
Joan of Arc
French peasant who felt moved by God to save France from English conquerors
Religious visions to fight the English
Captured by the English, who then turned her over to the French
Burnt at the stake for witchcraft
Led the "Siege of Orleans" giving the French victory over the English
Impacts
Feudalism collapses
Religious devotion crumbles
Chivalry collapses
Kings = leader, not Feudal Lords
Power and prestige of the French increases

The Renaissance
Rebirth or revival of civilization in the form of art, writing, and learning
Greece & Rome
Heritage explains Italian start
Wealthy middle class
Fewer labors = higher wages
Thriving cities, great reminisce
Latin reemerges
Greek scholars seek refuge in Rome after the fall of Constantinople
Innovative & Individualistic
New values
Success was created by oneself, not religious status
Humanism
Intellectual movement focused on human potential and achievement
History, literature, philosophy studied independently
No longer within Christian teaching
Secular
Non religious
Renaissance Man
Universal
Excel in many fields
Baldassare Castiglione
Should dance, sing, play music, write poetry, ride, wrestle, and be a swordsman
Renaissance Woman
Know humanities and be charming
Inspire art, but never create art
Better educated, but still no political power
Leonardo da Vinci
Renaissance painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist
Illegitimate son of peasants
Born in Italy
17 half siblings
Apprenticeship at age 15
Family
Broad Interests
How things works
Took notes on everything
Compelled by new subjects
Sahara Desert
West African Empires
The Great Zimbabwe
Swahili Empire
Aksum Empire
Early Peoples
Nomadic, began farming in 6000 BC
Family
Lineage
Stateless Societies
Includes past generations and future generations in which members have strong loyalty to one another
Government based on lineage in which no one family had too much control
What problems might this present to future interactions with non African civilizations?
Animism
Religion in which spirits operate in daily lives
Ghana
Mali
Songhai
800 AD
1235 AD
1400s
Wealth created by taxing traders
Establishment of Kings, Religious Leaders, Judges, and Military Commanders
King
Salt and Gold
Important and desirable trade items
Acted as an emperor
Only King could own gold
Islamic Conversion
Rulers converted to Islam, population did not
The Berbers
Independent desert dwellers
Maintained their identity and family loyalty even through Islamic conversion
Ibn Yasin
Almoravids
Muslim scholar who started the Almoravids
Muslim brotherhood who overran Ghana through religious conquest
Efe
Modern day Stateless Society
Massive and changing geographic challenge in North Africa
Sundiata
Mansa Musa
Mali's first great leader
Led a series of military victories
Followed by a period of prosperity
Muslim Mali ruler who expanded and divided Mali into provinces/states and appointed governors
Famous Hajj to Mecca
Gave away gold
Ordered construction of mosques in
Timbuktu
Gao
Lavish and important trading city in the Mali Empire
Death
Fall/Decline
Successors could not govern in the newly expanded empire
Empire falls within 50 years of his death
Created through military conquest and taxing
Defeated by invaders because of a lack of modern weapons
325-360 AD
Trade
Traders from Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India, and Roman Empire
Gold, Ivory, Salt, and Rhino Horns
Depletion of soil and forests led to the fall
1000 CE -1450 CE
Taxed the gold trade
Farming and agriculture
Mysteriously abandoned
Port Cities
Created out of the coastal markets
Porcelin, jewels, cotton from China and India
Ivory, Gold, Leopard Skins, Rhino horns from Africa
1100 CE
Islamic Influence
Muslim traders introduced Islam
As trade grew, so did Islam
The Earliest Americans
Mesoamerica
South American Empires
Yucatan Peninsula
9,000 miles of unbroken land
Bering Strait
Land bridge connecting North America to Asia
Others traveled by boat
10,000 BC
Region connecting North and South America
The Mayans
Built extraordinary civilization in Mexico and Central America
Government
Economy
Writing
Religion
Achievements
Glyphs
Symbols that stood for words
Most advanced writing system in the Americas
Theocracy
Landmass jutting north into the Gulf of Mexico, inhabited by the Mayans.
Based on trade amongst other American Empires
Polytheistic
Calendar
Generally accepted modern day calendar
Understanding of mathematics and astrology
Rise and Fall
City-States
Independent and fully functioning
War
Frequent warfare among kingdoms
Strong Religion
Resources Squandered
into religious activities
Agricultural Economy
Population Growth
Unsustainable growth
The Aztecs
7,500 feet above sea level, fertile soil, and many lakes
Economy
Chinampas
Trade
Obsidian Currency
Writing
Glyphs
Most were destroyed
Government
Triple Alliance
80,000 sq. Miles
Single Emperor
Montezuma
Tenochtitlan, capital city
Achievements
Engineering Feats
Construction of dikes
Religion
Polytheistic
Blood
Songs
Dances
All offered to the gods
Rise and Fall
Tribute States
Rebellious
Strong Religion
Resources Squandered
into religious activity
Interactions with Spain
Guns, Germs
Incas
Andes Mountains
Machu Picchu
Economy
Government
Religion
Achievements
No iron tools or the wheel
14,000 mile road system
Runners used as a postal system
Nazca Lines
Polytheistic
Total Control
Strong Military
Built schools and cities in conquered territory
Pachacuti
2,500 Miles
16 Million People
Writing
No written language
Quipu
Government Run
Spread of Islam
Monotheistic Religion: Believe in Muhammad, Submit to Allah
Muslims
Followers of Islam
Following Muhammad's Death
Abandoned
Refused to cooperate
Declared themselves prophets
Jihad
Struggle or fight Holy War
Put to use by Caliph Abu-Bakr
Muslim armies conquered lower Egypt and Syria
Appeal, offered equality and hope
Economic benefit: not having to pay taxes
Forced Conversion Forbid
Ka'aba
An ancient black, stone structure built as a house of worship in
Mecca
Home of Muhammad and Ka'aba
From or sacred Muslim text
Qur'an
Jews and Christians initially tolerated
Acceptance of surrender

Byzantium: The New Rome
Nova Roma: New Rome
Nearly a 1,000 years after the collapse of the Western Empire, Byzantium thrived in the east

Constantinople
Church conducted in Latin
Pope had authority of all other bishops
Priests cannot marry

Church conducted in Greek or local languages
Bishops: head the Church as a group
Priests may be married

Capital of Byzantine or Eastern Empire
Located in the middle of several trade routes
Not susceptible to German attacks like the west
East
West
Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Justinian
Roman Culture, Architecture, and Christianity
Took control of Byzantium in 527 AD
Justinian Code
Uniform laws created from outdated Roman Law
Competition for Converts
The Code
The Digest
The Institutes
The Novellae
Relevant Roman Law
Summaries on law
Textbook for law students
New Laws
Hagia Sophia
One of many churches built under Justinian
Hailed as the most splendid church in the Christian World
Western Europe
Heritage of Rome, Catholic Beliefs, Germanic Customs
Repeated Invasions & Warfare
Causes
Effects
Germanic Invasions
Could not read or write
No obligation to obey government or to pay taxes
Lived by unwritten rules & tradition
Disruption of trade
Downfall of cities
Population shift
Decline of learning
Loss of common language
Benedict
Wrote strict & practical rules for monks/nuns
By 600 AD many Germanic peoples converted to Christianity
If Germans are following written law provided by Christian monks, how will Western Europe be impacted?
Christendom or churchly kingdom ruled by a pope emerges
Charlemagne
Charles the Great: Western Europe Emperor
Reunited Western Europe
Spread Christianity
Crushed a mob in Rome & was crowned emperor by the Pope
Encouraged learning
Ordered monks and nuns to open schools
Thomas Aquinas
Following Charlemagne's death
Vikings
Fearsome Scandinavian Sailors
Raided Western Europe
Gradually accepted Christianity
Argued basic religious truths could be proved by logic
Empowered through
Excommunication
banishment from the church
The Age of Faith
New Religious Orders
Restructuring
Resembled a kingdom with the pope as its head
Massive building project
Cannon Law or law of the church
Gothic
Germanic Architecture
Reached toward heaven
Stain Glass Windows
Sculptures
Wood Carvings
Problems
Simony
Lay Investiture
Priest Marriage
Causes
Social
Economic
Political
Spiritual
Western Christian knights were feuding with one another. United against a common enemy.
Holy Lands are wealthy, Christians did not want to loose out.
Chance for Western Pope to gain territory in the east.
To fight/die on the Crusade was a ticket to heaven.
"God Wills it!"
Pope Urban II
English royal unified body of law
THE CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS
Feudalism
Social structure in medieval Europe
How did it work?
Lord
Kings and Queens
Vassals
Wealthy religious figures
Knights
Mounted horsemen who defended vassals
Serfs
Peasant workers or farmers who were bound to the land
Fief
Land granted by a landowner
Fief
Fief
Sustainable Land and Protection
Food & Service
Security & Military
Money & Knights
Manor: Lord's land
Tithe: Church Tax
Chivalry: Code followed by knights
Feudal Women
Powerless, just like men, but burdened by being inferior to men
Noblewomen
Peasant Women
Endless Labor
Field
Home
Child Birthing
Could inherit land
Held little property
Religious Strife
Clergy
Religious officials
Papacy (Pope) headed the Church
Pope
Bishops
Priests
Christian Community
Stable force during an era of constant turmoil
Sacraments were important religious ceremonies, that allowed all to achieve salvation
Lay Investiture
Policy in which Kings selected clergy
Pope Boniface VIII
Created an official document stating kings must obey Popes
King Philip
Disregarded Pope Boniface by taking him as a prisoner
Boniface died shortly after
Philip persuaded the choosing of a French Pope
Avignon
French city, where the new Pope moved
Commercial Revolution
Expansion of business and trade
Three Field System increased crop production and population
Formation of
Guilds
Trained youth, regulated goods, set working conditions
Apprentice
Journeyman
Master
More Workers
More Wealth
More Power
More Cities
Calamity or Recovery?
The Hundred Years War
Fought between England and France on French soil, marking the end of the Middle Ages
End of Chivalry
Longbows
Cheap, easy to carry, and deadly weapon that changed warfare
Penetrate Knights armor, reducing their impact
Introduced by the English
French Knights believed
themselves to be invincible
Treaty signed in which the English would inherit the French Crown
Joan of Arc
French peasant who felt moved by God to save France from English conquerors
Religious visions to fight the English
Captured by the English, who then turned her over to the French
Burnt at the stake for witchcraft
Led the "Siege of Orleans" giving the French victory over the English
Impacts
Feudalism collapses
Religious devotion crumbles
Chivalry collapses
Kings = leader, not Feudal Lords
Power and prestige of the French increases


The Renaissance
Rebirth or revival of civilization in the form of art, writing, and learning
Greece & Rome
Heritage explains Italian start
Wealthy middle class
Fewer labors = higher wages
Thriving cities, great reminisce
Latin reemerges
Greek scholars seek refuge in Rome after the fall of Constantinople
Innovative & Individualistic
New values
Success was created by oneself, not religious status
Humanism
Intellectual movement focused on human potential and achievement
History, literature, philosophy studied independently
No longer within Christian teaching
Secular
Non religious
Renaissance Man
Universal
Excel in many fields
Baldassare Castiglione
Should dance, sing, play music, write poetry, ride, wrestle, and be a swordsman
Renaissance Woman
Know humanities and be charming
Inspire art, but never create art
Better educated, but still no political power
Leonardo da Vinci
Renaissance painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist
Illegitimate son of peasants
Born in Italy
17 half siblings
Apprenticeship at age 15
Family
Broad Interests
How things works
Took notes on everything
Compelled by new subjects
Sahara Desert
West African Empires
The Great Zimbabwe
Swahili Empire
Aksum Empire
Early Peoples
Nomadic, began farming in 6000 BC
Family
Lineage
Stateless Societies
Includes past generations and future generations in which members have strong loyalty to one another
Government based on lineage in which no one family had too much control
What problems might this present to future interactions with non African civilizations?
Animism
Religion in which spirits operate in daily lives
Ghana
Mali
Songhai
800 AD
1235 AD
1400s
Wealth created by taxing traders
Establishment of Kings, Religious Leaders, Judges, and Military Commanders
King
Salt and Gold
Important and desirable trade items
Acted as an emperor
Only King could own gold
Islamic Conversion
Rulers converted to Islam, population did not
The Berbers
Independent desert dwellers
Maintained their identity and family loyalty even through Islamic conversion
Ibn Yasin
Almoravids
Muslim scholar who started the Almoravids
Muslim brotherhood who overran Ghana through religious conquest
Efe
Modern day Stateless Society
Massive and changing geographic challenge in North Africa
Sundiata
Mansa Musa
Mali's first great leader
Led a series of military victories
Followed by a period of prosperity
Muslim Mali ruler who expanded and divided Mali into provinces/states and appointed governors
Famous Hajj to Mecca
Gave away gold
Ordered construction of mosques in
Timbuktu
Gao
Lavish and important trading city in the Mali Empire
Death
Fall/Decline
Successors could not govern in the newly expanded empire
Empire falls within 50 years of his death
Created through military conquest and taxing
Defeated by invaders because of a lack of modern weapons
325-360 AD
Trade
Traders from Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India, and Roman Empire
Gold, Ivory, Salt, and Rhino Horns
Depletion of soil and forests led to the fall
1000 CE -1450 CE
Taxed the gold trade
Farming and agriculture
Mysteriously abandoned
Port Cities
Created out of the coastal markets
Porcelin, jewels, cotton from China and India
Ivory, Gold, Leopard Skins, Rhino horns from Africa
1100 CE
Islamic Influence
Muslim traders introduced Islam
As trade grew, so did Islam
The Earliest Americans
Mesoamerica
South American Empires
Yucatan Peninsula
9,000 miles of unbroken land
Bering Strait
Land bridge connecting North America to Asia
Others traveled by boat
10,000 BC
Region connecting North and South America
The Mayans
Built extraordinary civilization in Mexico and Central America
Government
Economy
Writing
Religion
Achievements
Glyphs
Symbols that stood for words
Most advanced writing system in the Americas
Theocracy
Landmass jutting north into the Gulf of Mexico, inhabited by the Mayans.
Based on trade amongst other American Empires
Polytheistic
Calendar
Generally accepted modern day calendar
Understanding of mathematics and astrology
Rise and Fall
City-States
Independent and fully functioning
War
Frequent warfare among kingdoms
Strong Religion
Resources Squandered
into religious activities
Agricultural Economy
Population Growth
Unsustainable growth
The Aztecs
7,500 feet above sea level, fertile soil, and many lakes
Economy
Chinampas
Trade
Obsidian Currency
Writing
Glyphs
Most were destroyed
Government
Triple Alliance
80,000 sq. Miles
Single Emperor
Montezuma
Tenochtitlan, capital city
Achievements
Engineering Feats
Construction of dikes
Religion
Polytheistic
Blood
Songs
Dances
All offered to the gods
Rise and Fall
Tribute States
Rebellious
Strong Religion
Resources Squandered
into religious activity
Interactions with Spain
Guns, Germs
Incas
Andes Mountains
Machu Picchu
Economy
Government
Religion
Achievements
No iron tools or the wheel
14,000 mile road system
Runners used as a postal system
Nazca Lines
Polytheistic
Total Control
Strong Military
Built schools and cities in conquered territory
Pachacuti
2,500 Miles
16 Million People
Writing
No written language
Quipu
Government Run
The Reformation
a movement of religious reform
Causes
Economic
Social
Political
Religious
Other
Kings jealous of Church's wealth
Resentment over tithes
engaging in behaviors
Practice of or being pardoned for sins
Kings viewed the Pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authority
Renaissance values brought about questions
printing press permitted the quick spread of critical ideas
Lay Investiture
Simony
Indulgences
Johann Gutenberg's
Clergy
Secular
Martin Luther
Catholic Monk and teacher in Germany
His began the Reformation
95 Thesis
Believed it OK for clergy to marry
Didn't like the impression that heaven could be bought
Salvation could be achieved in faith
Teaching are based on the Bible not Pope
Nailed to the church door, starting the reformation
What might this action look like today?
Effects
Formation of the Church
Protestant
Catholicism
Protestantism
Location of Church Authority
Vatican City, Rome
No head of church
Head of the Church
Pope
No head of church
Marriage
Not Permitted
Allowed and encouraged
Language
Latin
Common Language
vs.
The Age of Exploration
Fueled by a desire for wealth, the spread of Christianity, & advanced sailing technology
Demand
Supply
Spices
Luxury Goods
Italian Merchants & Muslim Traders controlled the trade
Spread Christianity
Moral call to convert non-Christians
Portugal
Sailing Innovators
Envied by Spain
Prince Henry VIII
The Navigator
Feudalism collapses
Religious devotion crumbles

Kings = leader, not Feudal Lords
Power increases
Christopher Columbus
Italian sailor who convinced Spain to fund his exploration of routes east
Treaty of Tordesillas
Vertical line drawn by the Pope dividing territory claims by Spain and Portugal
Effects
Expensive competition for India, China, and the New World
The Spanish Empire
Controlled land in:
Italy, Austria, & the Netherlands
American
Colonies
Group of people in one place ruled by a "parent country"
The Dutch East Indie Trading Co.
Emerged as a dominant competitor following independence from Spain
Declared independence from Spain
By 1600 had the largest fleet of ships in the world
Bartolomeu Dias
Vasco de Gama
Sailed to the tip of Africa
Sailed around the tip of Africa in route to India
Mercantilism
Extreme power and wealth are interrelated
The Spanish Empire Weakens
Cause
Effect
$ Value
Taxes
Spending
Revolt
Increase in population = Increase in demand
(High Prices)
Drove out Jews and Muslims to spread Catholicism
No taxes on upper class
Poor stayed poor with no middle class
Spent wealth in foreign countries
No re-circulation of wealth
11 Year war against the Dutch
Dutch declare independence
Conquistadors
Spanish conquerors of the Americas
Mestizo
Spanish and Native descent
Encomienda
Land grants for American settlers
Permitted the use of Natives as slaves
Reactions to Exploration
East Asia was a hot spot for luxury good
Ming Dynasty
1368-1644
Established trade with foreign countries while keep influences to a minimum
Didn't want Europeans threatening Ming peace and prosperity
Zheng He
Led sea voyages
Throughout SE Asia and Eastern Africa
Fleet of 300 ships destroyed after his death
Why?
Qing Dynasty
Isolation
Mid 1600s-1800s
who overthrew Ming
Manchu
rians
People of Manchuria
Stated that if foreigners wanted to trade with China they had to follow Chinese
rules
ex. kneeling at Emperor, touching forehead to ground
Japanese
"Closed Country Policy"
Wanted to be a self-sufficient country
Forbidden to leave so as to not bring back foreign ideas
What are the results of this isolation?
Native American Slavery
“There is nothing more detestable or more cruel”
Bartolome Las Casas
Criticized harsh labor systems that emerged under the Encomienda system
1519: 25.3 Million Natives
1605: 1 Million Natives
Why?
By the mid 1500s the Encomienda system was banished
Spanish priest who called for slavery to be abolished
Atlantic Slave Trade
Buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas
(Occurred as a result of natives dying by the millions)
1. Exposed to European disease
2. Less likely to escape
3. Skin color
Why?
How?
Triangular Trade
Middle Passage
3 way trade system between Americas, West Africa, and Europe
Harsh voyage from Africa to Americas
How was the Native America "labor system" similar/different to the "African Slave Trade System"?
Does slavery and do slave "systems" exist today?
The Global Exchange of Goods
Colombian Exchange
Mercantilism
Joint Stock Company
New wealth, power, and the migration of millions of people.
Global transfer of "New World" foods, plants, and animails
Never seen before
Tomatoes, Potatoes, Tobacco

Never seen before
Livestock, bananas, grains
Disease
Smallpox, measles, malaria

New World
Old World
Capitalism
No longer were governments the sole owners of wealth
Individuals combining wealth to distribute risk
Created even more individual wealth
Money supply

Permits individual ownership through individual risk/reward
The goal of nations became to acquire as much wealth as possible, through any means
Triangular Sails
Smaller Ships
More Cargo Space
Shallow Keel
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