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Evidence of Evolution

Class Aves
by

Sophia Trump

on 17 February 2014

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Transcript of Evidence of Evolution

Evidence of Evolution
Class Aves
Sophia Trump

Characteristics
Evidence of Evolution
Support of Darwin's Theories
Major
Exemplary Organisms
Systematics
Fossil Record
Anatomy and Physiology
Chromosomal Analysis
Embryology
Descent with Modification
Natural Selection
External
Feathers
Found only in the Aves class
Made of keratin
Uses:
Flight, warmth, and protection
Attract females in many species
Wings
Found in every member of Aves class
Visible skeletal structure
Consist of humerus, radius, ulna, carpal, metacarpal, phalanges
Uses:
Fly or navigate through water (depending on species)
Beak
Found in every member of the Aves class
Made of bone surrounded by keratin
Shaped according to diet
Uses:
Break up or catch food
Internal
Skeletal Structure
In every member of the Aves class
Large breastbones that attach to wing muscles
Flighted Birds:
Hollow bones
Flightless Birds:
Marrow-filled bones
Wings
Beaks
Backbone
Digestive System
In every member of the Aves class
Esophagus
tube that carries food to the crop
Crop
sack-like structure that stores food
Eggs
All organisms in the Aves class lay eggs
Vary in color and size
Hard shell formed by calcium that protects the embryo
Contains yoke and egg white
Behavioral
Reproduction
All in Aves class
Reproduce during breeding seasons
Courtship to attract females
Some species are monogamous, others find new mates every breeding season
Female carries offspring
Embryo develops in an egg
Flight patterns
Migratory birds often take the same path each migration
Trajectory and height of flying depends on bird size
Small birds have bouncy flight patterns
Birds of prey have smoother patterns and tend to glide
Habitat
Organisms belonging to the Aves class may be found on every continent, including arctic regions
Birds of flight:
Need an open space to fly and train their young to fly
Nesting birds need materials and places to build nests
All in Aves class:
Need to be able to obtain food
Need to be able to find mates
Climate ranges according to species, since birds can be found all over the world
The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes Forsteri)
Taxonomy
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Sphenisciformes
Family: Spheniscidae
Genus: Aptenodytes
Species: forsteri
Unique Characteristics
External and Internal in Genus Aptenodytes Species forsteri
Feathers
Flat, well oiled, and watertight
highest feather density of any bird
100 feather per square inch
black, white, yellow
Skeletal Structure
Solid bones filled with marrow
Low internal airspace to decrease buoyancy
Three to four feet tall
Weigh 50-100 pounds
Largest penguin species and diving bird
Wings do not support flight
Eggs
White, blueish green
Round or pear shaped
11.1 to 12.7 cm long
345 to 515 grams
Behavioral
Obtaining Food
Feed at sea
Use bioluminescence to catch prey
Travel up to 1454 km in a hunting trip
Go through annual fasting periods during breeding and molting seasons
Reproduction
Reach sexual maturity between three and eight years of age
Breed during this time
Flight Patterns
Emperor Penguins do not have the ability to fly
Use their wings as flippers in the water
Habitat
Found in Antarctica near the coast
From the continent's point to the Eastern coast
Sporadically around the continent's northern and southern coasts
Found near nutrient-rich, cold-water currents
Seasons opposite Northern Hemisphere
Found within limits of pack ice
Must live near bodies of water to obtain food
Must have land in order to hatch offspring and reproduce
Surrounded by the Southern Ocean
Divided by Transantarctic mountain range
The continent is 98% ice
Coldest, driest, windiest continent
Low precipitation
The Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis)
Taxonomy
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Phoenicopteriformes
Family: Phoenicopteridae
Genus: Phoenicopterus
Species: chilensis
Unique Characteristics
Feathers
12 principal flight feathers on each wing
12 to 16 tail feathers
Pale pink
derived from pigments in food
Feathers long and widespread
Male and female coloring the same
Full coloration not reached for one or two years
Skeletal Structure
Legs longer than body
80 to 125 cm long
Three webbed forward toes and one hind toe
Wingspan 1.2 to 1.5 meters
19 cervical vertebrate
Beaks equipped to eat larger fish
Eggs
78 to 90 mm long, 49 to 55 mm wide
115 g to 140 g
Oblong
White
Behavioral Characteristics
Obtaining Food
Hunt in shallow water
Tilt necks and sweep heads side to collect food
Filters food out of water and mud with tongue or llamellae
Stamp their feet in water to stir up food
Reproduction
Breeding begins at age six
Nest only once a year during breeding seasons
Courtship
Performed by groups of males by lengthening necks and calling to potential mates
Often monogamous
Make nests for eggs
Flight Patterns
Run in order to take off
Fly with head and neck extended
Flight speeds reach 50 to 60 kph
Known to fly 500 to 600 km each night between habitats
Habitat
Location
South America
Peru, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil
Tropical and subtropical regions
Alkaline, saline lakes, estuarine lagoons lacking vegetation
mangrove swamps and tidal flats in the intertidal zone
Requirements
Must be surrounded by land to hatch offspring
Must have food sources such as small fish, insects, and aquatic invertebrates
The Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus)
Taxonomy
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Strigiformes
Family: Strigidae
Genus: Bubo
Species: virginianus
Unique Characteristics
Internal and External in Genus Bubo Species virginianus
Feathers
Tufts on either side of its head
Brown, gray, white
Longer on torso and shorter around beak and head
Skeletal Structure
Wingspan of approximately 1.4 meters
Weigh approximately 2 to 5.5 pounds
Neck vertebrate allow head to turn in almost a complete circle
Eggs
Lay 1-4 eggs per season
5.3 to 5.6 cm long
Incubation 30-37 days
Nesting period 42 days
rough surface
Digestive System
Do not have a crop, food is passed directly to the proventriculus
Wastes that remain in the gizzard are compressed into a pellet which is stored in the proventriculus
Thrown up when owl must eat again
Behavioral
Obtaining food
kill more prey than can eat
save remains of food for later use
hunt by perching, then gliding down from perch and snatching prey
Rabbits and hares-preferred prey
May attack other owls
May take prey two to three times heavier than itself
Reproduction
Breeding season in late fall early winter
Male calls to the female, female returns the call
Occurs in dense foliage or rock crevices
Female lays two or more eggs
young develops over months
Nesting begins in January or February
chicks hatch after one month
Flight Patterns
Direct flap and glide flight
strong, silent wing beats
helps acquire prey and steadily see land
Habitat
Location
Prefer open and secondary-growth woodlands and agricultural areas
deciduous and coniferous forests, swamps, coastal mangroves, and rocky desert canyons
Requirements
Habitats with trees in order to nest for young
Areas with ample consumers, such as skunks and squirrels, in order to feed
Seasons and average precipitation to support vegetation
nutrient-rich soil
How Systematics Shows Relatedness
Groups organisms into different sections
based off shared physical characteristics
Further divides groups into species
based off structural differences
More shared traits, more closely related evolutionary history
shared traits inherited from common ancestor
Groupings shown in phylogenetic trees, cladograms
Homologous structures
same structure, different function
inherited from common ancestor
Organisms related
Similarities used to group organisms
Examples
A cladogram may group vertebrates and invertebrates
All birds classified as vertebrates, showing their relatedness
Cladogram then separates vertebrates according to feather density
Cladogram shows relatedness of pigeons and emus
Shows pigeons and emus are both vertebrates, have wings and beak
Related
Separates according to ability to fly (bone density)
Shows pigeons are closely related to another flying bird, (seagull), than to emu
Emu and pigeon related because of backbone, wings, beak
A phylogenetic tree shows that screamers and waterfowl are more closely relate to each other than to kiwis
Relatedness of screamers and waterfowl to woodpeckers
Fossils
How Fossils Show Relatedness and Evolution
Archaeopteryx lithographica
Age
Approximately 150 mya
Jurassic Period
Dating
Relative
Dated from the Upper Jurassic Sonhofen Limestone in Southern Germany
Strata
Limestone
Jurassic Layer
Depth
Upper Layers of Jurassic limestone deposits
Aurornis xui
Age
Approximately 160 mya
Late Jurassic period
Oxfordian stage
Dating
Relative
Dated from the Tiaojisham Formation
Strata
Sedimentary Rock
Jurassic Layer
Depth
Upper layers near surface of Jurassic sediments
Confuciusornis sanctus
Age
Approximately 125-120 mya
Early cretaceous period
Dating
Relative
Dated from the Jianshangou Beds of the Yixian Formation
Strata
Basaltic layer with siliciclastic sediments
Cretaceous layer
Depth
Upper levels of basaltic layer
Towards bottom of cretaceous deposits
Hesperornis regalis
Age
Apprx. 83-80 mya
Late Cretaceous period
Dating
Relative
Dated from the Smoky Hill Chalk layer of the Niobrara Formation
Strata
Chalk Layer
Late Cretaceous
Depth
Upper layers of cretaceous deposits and chalk deposits
Ichthyornis dispar
Age
Apprx. 95-85 mya
Late Cretaceous period
Dating
Relative
Dated from the Western Interior Seaway Formation
Strata
Chalk layer
Late Cretaceous layer
Depth
Upper levels of cretaceous deposits
Gastornis parisiensis
Age
Apprx. 55-45 mya
Paleogene Period
Dating
Relative
Dated from deposits in Meudon, France
Strata
Clay
Paleogene Layer
Depth
Lower levels of Cenozoic layers
Similarities to fossils show relatedness, differences show how they evolved to environments, changed over time
Similarities show modern birds related to these ancestors
Similarities in structure
Ichthyornis dispar, Hesperornis regalis, Confuciusornis sanctus, Archaeopteryx lithographic, Aurornis xui, wings
Birds today, wings
All fossils, beaks
Birds today, beaks
Structural similarities show these traits were inherited, showing relatedness
Differences in Structure
Aurornis xui, no feathers
Birds today, feathers
feathers an adaptation as birds became fliers
Size
Aurornis xui, Archaeopteryx lithographica smaller than Ichthyornis dispar, Hesperornis regalis, more streamlined
Fossils show past birds evolved to be streamlined to fly and swim easier
Differences show modern birds changed from ancestors, or evolved, more fit for environment
How evolution has occurred
Mutations in structure allowed birds to be better suited to their environments
Feathers, size
Modern Examples:
Emperor Penguin
Beak, vertebrate, feathers, wings
Chilean Flamingo
Beak, vertebrate, feathers, wings
Great Horned Owl
Beak, wings, vertebrate, feathers
Similarities in Structures and Functions
Feathers
Found on every living species of bird and no other animal
Used by all for warmth and protection
Flighted birds use them for flight
Used by many for courtship
Skeletal Structure
All birds, large breastbones, attach to wing muscles
Beaks
Used to eat food
Wings
Used to navigate through habitat (air or water)
Birds of prey use wings to glide to catch prey
Backbone
Eggs
All birds lay eggs to protect the embryo
Contain the yolk and the egg white
Most birds make nests to protect their eggs
Digestive System
All birds have an esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, and intestines
Variances in size of each according to species
Wings
All wings are mainly comprised of a humerus, radius, ulna, phalanges, and carpometacarups
However, the length of these parts varies from species to species
The radius and ulna of the laysan albatross is longer than the humerus and radius of the calliope hummingbird
Beaks
Vary between species according to diet
Insect eaters tend to have a thin, pointed beak, while seed eaters have cone shaped bills
Emperor Penguin
has dense feathers in order to keep warm and be aerodynamic in water
Feathers/appearance used for courtship
Lays eggs
Wings used as flippers to navigate through water
At one point used to fly
Vertebrate
Pointed beaks to catch fish
Great Horned Owl
Feathers used for flying and keeping warm
Lays eggs to protect embryos
Wings used to fly
Vertebrate
Chilean Flamingo
Feathers aid in flight
Feathers/appearance used for courtship
Lays eggs to protect embryos
Builds nests
Vertebrate
Wings used to fly
Same digestive system, long esophagus
long neck
Relatedness
Anatomical similarities show how birds descended from a common ancestor
Traits were inherited
Wings, feathers, laying eggs, beaks, and backbones are shared by all and show common evolutionary history
Evolution
Anatomical similarities were not shared by all organisms in the group in the past
Fossil Record
Since shared today, shows how populations have evolved to their environments
Reproduction
Females carry offspring and lay eggs
Reproductive systems
Same structure
Males begins courtship
Chromosomal Analysis
Male birds contain ZZ sex chromosomes
Females have ZW sex chromosomes
W chromosome differentiates sex
Z chromosome the fourth or fifth largest chromosome
contains sex-linked genes
The mycteria americana has two chromosomes less than the Geosynchronous hyacinthus
Both have similar chromosomes in grouping 1 and 7-10
similar in size and shape
Both have sex chromosomes Z and W
Great Horned Owl
82 diploid
modal chromosome number out of 7 tested
41 haploid
ZW sex classification
Emperor Penguin
38 diploid, 19 haploid
ZW sex classification
Turkey
77 diploid (female)
76 diploid (male)
Chicken
78 diploid
More closely related, so similar in number
How Chromosomes support Relatedness and Evolution
Similarities (Relatedness)
Sex chromosomes, size, and function
Show a common ancestry and relatedness
Species with closer numbers are more closely related
Chicken and turkey
Differences (Evolution)
Variations in shape and number between species
Show how organisms have adapted to their environments
Mutations in genes (adaptations) are supported by DNA, which is housed by chromosomes
Embryology
Chicken
21 days
Feathers, beak, reproductive organs, wings, heart, ears, backbone, eyes, and nervous system appear in days 1-10
Scales and claws appear, and other features further develop days 13-16
Days 19-21, embryo prepares for hatching and hatches
Barn Owl
Development to stage 39 identical to chicken's
After stage 39, limb size, vascular development and auditory brain stem develop differently
Longer incubation, slower development
Similar positioning when hatching
Emperor Penguin
In beginning stages, embryo develops a system of capillaries in order to obtain oxygen
At 28 days the embryo absorbs calcium from shell to develop bones
At 64 days the embryo begins to hatch
Hatching takes 3 days
Great Horned Owl
Takes 28 days to hatch
All birds
Embryo takes up space in the egg
Positions body so head next to air space
CAM tissue supplies oxygen in early stages
Embryo begins breathing with lungs
Before hatching, embryo consumes albumen and yolk
How Embryology supports Relatedness and Evolution
Similarities suggest common ancestry
Separate species have similar developmental traits, inherited
Chicken and barn owl, overall similarities
Embryonic structures (vertebral columns, alimentary tracts, and nervous systems)
Show relatedness
Differences show evolution
Differences in development show how organisms have evolved and diverged from their ancestor
Size of certain traits, length of development
Suggests that species were better able to survive with larger traits and longer developmental periods in their youth
Evolution occurred through changes in bird embryonic development
Fossil Record:
Similarities in structure of prehistoric and modern birds
Shows relatedness of two groups, showing how birds descended from a common ancestor
Tertiary species and birds today show how they have gradually changed through time
Anatomy and Physiology:
Similarities in structure and function show birds descended from common ancestor
Birds evolved to have variations of similarities, show gradual change to be better adapted to environment
Chromosomal Analysis:
Similarities in structure and sex chromosomes show relatedness to a common ancestor
Different chromosome numbers show how birds have gradually diverged and changed through time from their ancestor
Embryology:
Similarities in development show birds diverged from common ancestor
Shows birds changed through time
Similarities shown in early stages, but as birds continue to develop, they become increasingly different
Fossil Record:
Show birds changed through time from ancestors
Evolved to have variations of traits to better survive in environments
ex. some prehistoric birds did not have feathers, birds today have feathers
Anatomy and Physiology:
Similarities support common ancestry, variation shows organisms adapted to better survive in environments.
All birds have wings, not all birds fly
Variations first mutations, but then were selected for over time and allowed species to diverge
Chromosomal Analysis:
Shows adaptations and evolution in terms of DNA
adaptations that cause evolution were caused by mutations in DNA, which are housed by chromosomes
Shown in varying chromosome numbers
Similarities (sex chromosomes and structure) show their relatedness
Embryology:
Similarities in early development support a common ancestry
Differences in later development show how birds have acquired variances, or adaptations, to these shared traits as they have adapted to their environments through time
Obtaining Food
Some species hunt in flocks
Birds often eat many different foods
Some will collect and save food for future meals
More aggressive species guard food sources
Internal and External in Genus Phoenicopterus Species chilensis
How Anatomy and Physiology show Relatedness and Evolution
Proventriculus
first stomach chamber
Gizzard
second stomach chamber
Intestines
tubes that further extract nutrients
Breed annually from April to March during Antarctic Autumn
Monogamous
Courtship to attract mates
Includes trumpeting and bowing
South of the Arctic tundra in Canada to the pampas of South America
Found highly in eastern Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas, and southern Saskatchewan
Emperor penguin (denser) separated from chilean flamingo and great horned owl
Shows that chilean flamingo and great horned owl are more closely related
All three are still related because of their backbone
Variations
Variations in wing structure, digestive structure, egg color, and feather color show how organisms have changed over time and diverged
Shows evolution
Adapted to different environments
W much smaller
Contains repeat sequence DNA
Number of chromosomes varies, closer in more related species
Centromere and basic chromosomal structure
Difference in shape in group 3
Both species' chromosomes decrease in size as the chromosome number increases
Chromosomes group together during mitotic metaphase
Contain all genetic info
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http://fsc.fernbank.edu/Birding/skeleton.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Penguin
http://www.newark.osu.edu/facultystaff/personal/jstjohn/Documents/Cool-fossils/Confuciusornis-sanctus.htm
http://tolweb.org/Spheniscidae/26387
http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/collections/our-collections/fossil-vertebrate-collections/birds/archaeopteryx/index.html
Process
Birds diverged from small carnivorous dinosaurs
Late Jurassic
Earliest ancestor Archaeopteryx
Had teeth, tail, more prominent bone structure
Mutations became popular in birds
Fitter, better able to reproduce and pass on genes and mutations
Differential Reproduction
New population diverged from Archaeopteryx
As pop. grew, new mutations, reach new environments
Helped avoid competition, fill new niches
Fit
This evolution proved through fossils, anatomy and physiology, chromosomal analysis, and embryology
Nature has selected for the structures seen today
Feathers, reduced bone structure
First appeared as mutations
Mutations occurred through genetic variation
No DNA, no mutations, more DNA, more sequences to mutate
Fitter because of competition
Struggle to Survive, overpopulation
New species, divergence
Variations of the mutations/adaptations
Beak size, wing size, feather color
Birds seen today
Biographies
http://www.emperor-penguin.com/penguin-lifecycle.html
http://www.emperor-penguin.com/empswim.html
http://www.arkive.org/king-penguin/aptenodytes-patagonicus/image-G58084.html
http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/birds/great-horned-owl/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_feather
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feather
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oology
http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-image-blue-robin-eggs-bird-nest-image5286761
http://hawaiinaturejournal.weebly.com/1/category/birds/2.html
Full transcript