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The History of Second Language Acquisition
Transcript of The History of Second Language Acquisition
The History of Second Language Acquisition
Lily Teague & Alexandra Bereznyatskaya
History of L1A - 1950s & 60s
B. F. Skinner
Birth of Contrastive Analysis
Morpheme Study - 1973
Language learning stages
Order of acquisition
Second Language Learning
Morpheme Studies - L2A
The 1980's: "New Beginnings" for SLL
Information processing models of SLL
Fundamental Issues of SLA
1. Role of internal mechanisms?
2. Role of the first language?
3. Role of psychological variables?
4. Role of social & environmental factors?
5. Role of the input?
J'ai douze ans.
Je SUIS douze ans.
Krashen's Monitor Model
1. The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
2. The Monitor Hypothesis
3. The Natural Order Hypothesis
4. The Input Hypothesis
5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis
Language Learning Stages
Order of Acquisition
Other Models of SLA
1st attempt to study the language of adult immigrants
Closer to the community of the target language - better acquisition
1. Crying Birth
2. Cooing 6 weeks
3. Babbling 6 months
4. Intonation patterns 8 months
5. One-word utterances 1 year
6. Two-word utterances 18 months
7. Word inflections 2 years
8. Questions, negatives 2 years 3 months
9. Rare or complex constructions 5 years
10. Mature speech 10 years
Present progressive boy sing
Past regular want
Third singular eat
N: 536 Research Design: Cross-Sectional
Age: 5-9 years old Elicitation technique: Structured conversation
L1: 461 Spanish L2 environment: Host
N: 73 Research Design: Cross-Sectional
Age: 17-55 years old Elicitation technique: Structured conversation
L1: Greek, Persian, Italian, L2 environment: Host
Japanese, Chinese, Thai
Afghani, Hebrew, Arabic,
"We know from observation that many cases that the grammatical structure of the native language tends to be transferred to the foreign language...we have here the major source of difficulty or ease in learning the foreign language... Those structures that are different will be difficult." - Lado, 1957
Continuing research in SLA
Learning vs. Acquisition
Knowing about L1
Focus on form and linguistic rules
Natural interaction with language
Learners can learn the rule, but not acquire it
Learning cannot turn onto acquisition
Main claims of the theory
Learning has the only function - Monitor/editor
Learning mechanisms don't operate all the time
Editing the utterance
I've got A for my grammar test!
Du gehe zum Schule
No evidence of Monitor Use
Researchers of interactions between explicit and implicit learning
The natural order Hypothesis
Morpheme Acquisition order Interlanguage
We acquire the rules of a language in a predictable order
Development = receiving and processing the
CI - the input that is just beyond the learner’s current L2 competence
The Input Hypothesis
i+ 1 = development
i + “i”
i + 2/3/4…
Speaking is the result of acquisition but not it’s cause
Speech “emerges” on its own as a result of building competence via comprehensible input
If input is understood, and there is enough of it, the grammar automatically provided.
The language teacher need not attempt deliberately to teach the next structure along the natural order - it will be provided just in right quantities and automatically reviewed if the student receives a sufficient amount of comprehensible input.
Communicative approach in language teaching
Strong- high Optimal
Less input Successful LA
(understand the message but!
the input doesn't reach
that part of brain, responsible for LA)
The Affective Filter
Mind – limited capacity processor
Negotiation of meaning (confirmation checks and clarification requests ) - success in LA
The interaction Hypothesis and the Output Hypothesis
Learning = Controlled processing
1) How do individual characteristics of the learner such as motivation, personality, language aptitude, working memory etc. affect the learning process?
2) What is the role of instruction in shaping or speeding up development?
3) What is the relationship between between the input and internal mechanisms?
5) In what respects are both first and second language learning and processing similar to the learning and processing of any other complex skill?
4) How does the overall socialization of the 2L learner relate to the language learning process?