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The History of Second Language Acquisition

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Lily Teague

on 24 September 2014

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Transcript of The History of Second Language Acquisition

1960
1970
1990
1950
1980
The History of Second Language Acquisition
Lily Teague & Alexandra Bereznyatskaya

History of L1A - 1950s & 60s
Behaviourism
B. F. Skinner
Birth of Contrastive Analysis
Morpheme Study - 1973
Roger Brown
Language learning stages
Order of acquisition
Negatives
Second Language Learning
Stephen Corder
Error Analysis
Interlanguage
Morpheme Studies - L2A
The 1980's: "New Beginnings" for SLL

Information processing models of SLL
Fundamental Issues of SLA
1. Role of internal mechanisms?
2. Role of the first language?
3. Role of psychological variables?
4. Role of social & environmental factors?
5. Role of the input?
Noam Chomsky
Charles Fries
Structuralism
1945
J'ai douze ans.
Je SUIS douze ans.
Structural Linguistics
Generative
Linguistics
Krashen's Monitor Model
1. The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
2. The Monitor Hypothesis
3. The Natural Order Hypothesis
4. The Input Hypothesis
5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis
Language Learning Stages
Order of Acquisition
Other Models of SLA
John Schumann
1st attempt to study the language of adult immigrants
Closer to the community of the target language - better acquisition
Pidginization/Acculturation
Creolization
Language Stage
Beginning Age
1. Crying Birth
2. Cooing 6 weeks
3. Babbling 6 months
4. Intonation patterns 8 months
5. One-word utterances 1 year
6. Two-word utterances 18 months
7. Word inflections 2 years
8. Questions, negatives 2 years 3 months
9. Rare or complex constructions 5 years
10. Mature speech 10 years
Present progressive boy sing
ing
Prepositions dolly
in
car
Plural sweeti
es
Past Irregular
broke
Possessive baby
's
biscuit
Articles
a
car
Past regular want
ed
Third singular eat
s
Auxillary
be
he
is
running

SAMPLE:
N: 536 Research Design: Cross-Sectional
Age: 5-9 years old Elicitation technique: Structured conversation
L1: 461 Spanish L2 environment: Host
55 Chinese
L2: English
SAMPLE:
N: 73 Research Design: Cross-Sectional
Age: 17-55 years old Elicitation technique: Structured conversation
L1: Greek, Persian, Italian, L2 environment: Host
Japanese, Chinese, Thai
Afghani, Hebrew, Arabic,
Vietnamese
L2: English
"We know from observation that many cases that the grammatical structure of the native language tends to be transferred to the foreign language...we have here the major source of difficulty or ease in learning the foreign language... Those structures that are different will be difficult." - Lado, 1957
Group Discussion
Continuing research in SLA
Learning vs. Acquisition
Conscious
Subconscious
Knowing about L1
Focus on form and linguistic rules
Classroom
Natural interaction with language
Naturalistic environment
Natural interaction
with language
Learners can learn the rule, but not acquire it
Learning cannot turn onto acquisition

Main claims of the theory

Monitor Hypothesis
Learning has the only function - Monitor/editor

Learning mechanisms don't operate all the time
Acquisition
Learning
Utterance
Editing the utterance
I've got A for my grammar test!
BUT!
Du gehe zum Schule
No evidence of Monitor Use
Researchers of interactions between explicit and implicit learning
Resulted in:
The natural order Hypothesis

Morpheme Acquisition order Interlanguage


We acquire the rules of a language in a predictable order
Development = receiving and processing the
co
mprehensible input



CI - the input that is just beyond the learner’s current L2 competence


The Input Hypothesis




i+ 1 = development
i + “i”
i + 2/3/4…

Speaking is the result of acquisition but not it’s cause

Speech “emerges” on its own as a result of building competence via comprehensible input

If input is understood, and there is enough of it, the grammar automatically provided.

The language teacher need not attempt deliberately to teach the next structure along the natural order - it will be provided just in right quantities and automatically reviewed if the student receives a sufficient amount of comprehensible input.

Key claims
Communicative approach in language teaching


Strong- high Optimal


Less input Successful LA
(understand the message but!
the input doesn't reach
that part of brain, responsible for LA)

The Affective Filter


Barry McLaughlin

Mind – limited capacity processor
Learning

Michael Long

Negotiation of meaning (confirmation checks and clarification requests ) - success in LA

The interaction Hypothesis and the Output Hypothesis

Learning = Controlled processing


Automatic processing
1) How do individual characteristics of the learner such as motivation, personality, language aptitude, working memory etc. affect the learning process?
2) What is the role of instruction in shaping or speeding up development?
3) What is the relationship between between the input and internal mechanisms?
5) In what respects are both first and second language learning and processing similar to the learning and processing of any other complex skill?
4) How does the overall socialization of the 2L learner relate to the language learning process?

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