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Copy of Waves

What are waves? Properties of Waves Interactions of Waves Seismic Waves

Laura Frye

on 29 March 2011

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Transcript of Copy of Waves

What are Waves? wave medium material through which a wave travels mechanical wave waves that require a medium through which to travel electromagnetic wave waves that can travel without a medium gases, liquids, solids produced when a source of energy causes a medium to vibrate vibration repeated back and forth or up and down motion when a vibration moves through a medium, a wave results types of mechanical waves transverse "across" waves that move at right angles to the direction in which the waves travel crest the high part of a transverse wave trough the low part of a transverse wave a disturbance that transfers energy from place to place longitudinal move the medium parallel to the direction in which the waves travel compressions where the coils are close together rarefactions parts where the coils are spread out or rarified Properties of Waves basic properties amplitude wavelength frequency speed amplitude in transverse waves maximum distance the medium moves up or down from its rest position in longitudinal waves measure of how compressed or rarefied the medium the medium becomes find by measuring the distance from the rest position to the crest or trough dense compressions = large amplitude wavelength the distance between 2 corresponding parts of a wave can measure distance from crest to crest or trough to trough frequency the number of complete waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time measured in: hertz (Hz) 1 wave per second = 1 Hz speed how far the wave travels in a given length of time speed = wavelength x frequency frequency = speed / wavelength wavelength = speed / frequency Interactions of Waves reflection refraction bending of two waves due to a change in speed when a wave enters a new medium at an angle, one side of the wave, changes speed before the other side, causing the wave to bend bending only occurs when the wave enters the medium at an angle examples: rainbow, see a fish under the water diffraction when a wave moves around a barrier or through an opening in a barrier, it bends and spreads out interference interaction between waves that meet constructive interference when waves combine to make a wave with a larger amplitude destructive interference two waves combine to make a wave with a smaller amplitude Waves Seismic Waves waves produced by earthquakes P waves, S waves, or surface waves P WAVES primary waves longitudinal seismic waves move faster than the other seismic waves and end up at distant points before the other types compressions and rarefactions of rock inside the Earth compress and expand the ground like a slinky S WAVES secondary waves transverse seismic waves shake the ground up and down and side to side as it moves through it cannot travel through liquids therefore, do not travel directly through the earth like P waves Earth's core is... liquid SURFACE WAVES combination of a longitudinal wave and a transverse wave that travels along the surface of a medium combine up and down and side to side motion, making the ground roll like ocean waves tsunamis huge surface waves on the ocean caused from earthquakes underwater the waves add upon each other as they reach shallow water detecting seismic waves seismograph records the ground movements cause by seismis waves as they move through earth placed at different locations around the world so when there is an earthquake... P waves arrive before S waves scientists measure the time between P and S waves and can tell how far away the earthquake was when an object or a wave hits a surface through which it cannot pass, it bounces back the maximum distance a wave moves away from their resting position Like sound waves move slower than P and S waves but
cause the most severe ground movement
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