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Sexual Health in Adolescence

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Bianca Hansen

on 16 October 2013

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Transcript of Sexual Health in Adolescence

Show me the money!
Sexual Health: Chlamydia Trachomatis
The Adolescent as a Health Consumer
What is an STI?
What is...
What defines adolescence and chlamydia?
Why is chlamydia an adolescent health problem?
Mostly asymptomatic
Can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease
Reduce fertility if left untreated
(both male and female)
Testing and awareness
Does it encourage or prevent safe sex?
Why is Chlamydia considered
an adolescent health problem?
The Literature
Current Guidelines:
<25 and sexually active
Creating a balance
Removing social stigma
Media influence
Increasing chlamydia rates
Removing social stigma
Raising awareness
Encouraging SAFE sex
Understanding risk
Sexual negociation difficult during adolescence
Biased decisions and not cognitively calculated
Emphasis on short term benefits
underestimate risk
Critical adaptive function
Peer pressure
If you're a teenager...
and if you have never had chlamydia before...
Incentives and adolescent developmental stage
Expand incentive concept


Cultural barrier


3 T's!

Continue current aim
Chlamydia rates nation wide
The challenge ahead

Adolescents challenging group to reach due to cognitive development

Despite outreach and media influence
Current method not proving cost effective
Recommendations such as using testing as an opportunity to educate as well as screen
Expand testing locations
Expand incentives concept
Continue to remove social stigma
Most prevalent STD in the UK
Sexually transmitted
If you are sexually active and under 25 annual check
It is easily treatable with
Aims and objectives
Sense of risk/benefit
Cognitive developmental stage
Financial implications
Peer pressure
Chlamydia trachomatis
Tell me more...
Thank you for listening
Curie et al 2010 Brugha et al 2011, Niccolai et al 2005
(Or just encourage sex...?)
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent STI in the UK

Particularly high infection rates between the ages of 16-24

Easily cured if detected early!
approx. 1 in 10 sexually active young people
Most common in young adults and can result in infertility
In 2011 there was a 4% drop positive chlamydia rates in young adults

Could be due to more screening-more treatment-less chlamydia, but.... It is due to falling numbers of younger adults being screened.
Test and treat!
Grunseit et al 1997, Silva 2002
and the adolescent brain
positive incentive motivation
Negative incentive motivation
Impacts behaviour
Ethical and moral considerations
Immediate reward system
Directs behaviour
Test and teach
Luciana and Collins 2012
Bjork et al 2010
What is an STI?
A recognised phase of life
Critical transition from child to adult
Culture, socioeconomic
Risk taking
Developmental experiences
Genital Warts
Secondary Syphilis
Pubic lice
Bjork J M, Smith A R, Chen G, Hammer D W (2006) Adolescents, adults and rewards; comparing motivation and neurocircuitry recruitment using fMRI, PLoS ONE 5, e114400

Brugha R, Balfe M, Jeffares I, Conroy R M, Clarke E, Fiztgerald M, O’Connell E, Vaughan D, Coleman C, McGee H, Gillespie P, O’Donovan D, (2011) Where do young adults want opportunistic chlamydia screening services to be located? Journal of Public Health, 33(4) 571-578,

Currie M J, Schmidt M, Davis B K, Baynes A M, O’Keefe E J, Bavinton T P, McNiven M, Martin S J, Bowden F J (2010) ’Show me the money!’: Financial incentives increase chlamydia screening rates among tertiary students: a pilot study. Sexual Health, 7(1), 60-65,

Department of Health, (n.d) Accessed online: www.dh.gov.uk/health/2011/07/chlamydia -screening-programme/, on 20/11.2012

Ernst M, Pine D,Hardin M (2006) Triadic model of the neurobiology of motivated behavior in adolescence. Psychological Medicine, 36(3), 299-312

Grunseit A, Kippax S, Aggleton P, Baldo P, Slutkin G (1997) Sexuality education and young people’s sexual behaviour: A review of studies, Journal of Adolescent Research, 12(4), 421-453

Health Protection Agency (2012) New data show sexually transmitted infection diagnoses on the rise in England, Press release

Jenkins G, (2009) Chlamydia, accessed online: www.bbc.co.uk/health on 27/11/12

Luciana M, Collins A R, (2012) Incentive motivation, cognitive control, and the adolescent brain: Is it time for a paradigm shift? Child Development Perspectives, 6(4), 392-399

Macintosh M, Molinar D, Nardone A, Nichols T, Riha J, Zenner D (2012) Should young people be paid for getting tested?A national comparative study to evaluate patient financial incentives for chlamydia screening, BMX Public Health, Research Findings, 12:261,

National Audit Office, synopsis of National Audit Office findings in the Department of Health and NHS. Spring 2009.

National Chlamydia Screening Programme, (2012) Survey of patient and public engagement practices. Quality assurance report.

National Chlamydia Screening Programme (n.d) Accessed online: www.chlamydiascreening.nhs.uk

Niccolai L M, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Jenkins H, Green S, Dunne D W (2005) Condom effectiveness for prevention of chlamydia trachomatis infection, sexually transmitted infections, 81(4), 323-325

National Health Service (n.d) Chlamydia, accessed online: www.nhs.co.uk/conditions/hlamydia on 27.11.12

Silva M (2002) The effectiveness of school-based sex education sex education programs in promotion of abstinent behaviour: a meta analysis, Health Education Research, Theory and Practice, 17(4), 471-481

Photographs aquired from Science Photo Library, (n.d) www.sciencephoto.com, Accessed 26.11.2012,
Any questions?
Jenkins 2009
National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP), 2005
Health Protection Agency, 2012
Health Protection Agency, 2012
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