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Literacy and Second Language Education 2
Transcript of Literacy and Second Language Education 2
What questions, issues, or thoughts arose during your reading?
More Recent History
I would have enjoyed the text, The Promise of Schooling, a bit more if it continued to discuss the progression of schooling up until the twenty-first century, rather than stopping in 1914. Displaying a more recent history would enable us to see the progression of the themes already introduced and the impact of the technological revolution on schooling and literacy.
What does it mean to be literate?
Paul Axelrod's The Promise of Schooling, defines literacy as "the ability to read and write".
"Literacy is defined as the ability to read and write" (pg. 65).
The Promise of Schooling
Does that still apply in 2013?
Does literacy necessarily mean reading AND writing? As mentioned in the above video, students can learn how to write before they learn how to read. Does this mean they are partially literate?
What does this mean for cultures that are highly visual? What about oral? Historically, Aboriginal cultures followed oral traditions, but when Residential schools came into place, students were forced to learn English and by extension learned how to write. Is there still room for oral culture in a world that is heavily reliant on text?
The Wordle below demonstrates all of the different types of technology that Elbow Valley Elementary School used in the 2012-2013 school year
Digital technology has been described as "a key driver of societal development around the world" ( Sewlyn, N., 2013). This indicates that it is of utmost importance to embrace technology in educational environments and curricula
Since girls received less education than boys, they were initially less literate than boys.
Also, aboriginal and black students received inferior education so they were less literate in terms of reading and writing.
Inequality in literacy
We are now shifting towards a digital literacy.
The schools in Peel have adopted "BYOD" (Bring Your Own Device). This includes: Ipads, smartphones, and tablets. Do you think this is a good idea?
In my placement, students were using Ipads to access the math textbook online and there were so many technical problems and time lost. The teacher could have just wrote out the math questions on the board. Do you think using new technologies make learning easier or is it a waste of time?
Literacy in Technology
What does it mean to be literate in the 21st century? How has it changed from the 19th century?
Ipads and tablets
Ipods and MP3 players
Technology Used in Schools
International Adult Literacy & Skills Survey (2005)
Defines literacy as "The ability to understand and employ printed information in daily activities at home, at work, and in the community-to achieve one's goals, and to develop one's knowledge and potential."
Is there a literacy standard students should achieve or is it relative to their career goal?
"...researchers have yet to employ definitive methods for measuring it." (The Promise of Schooling, p. 65)
Without a definitive means of measuring how can we rely of historical and present literacy rates?
Are program like BYOD creating further inequalities in the classroom? Highlighting divides in socioeconomic statuses?
Students who don't have access to digital literacy, are they being left behind?
“Literacy is defined…as the skills and knowledge in reading and writing, speaking, listening, representing, and viewing that empower learners to make meaningful connections between what they know and what they need to know.”
Think Literacy Success, Grades 7-12, 2003
After reading Promise of Schooling I was not satisfied with its definition of literacy. I found the above definition on www.edugains.ca.
I really like this definition and all that it encompasses!
Are books loosing their value?
a book holds significant value
a book holds imagination, interest and knowledge
a book is a valuable record of our world
for ex. "Promise of Schooling" key example of history - stories from century's ago
the genre of history is highly valued through a book
in the age of internet, we resort to online resources quicker then looking for a book
In the age of Internet, are books still being valued as a primary source?
Internet Vs. Books
Even though technology is so heavily enforced, we must not forget about the use of novels and picture books. There should be a balance between the two, in classroom use and teaching style. The difference between reading a book and reading text online demonstrates different learning styles. Although some children may be up to speed with technology, those who cannot afford to access to the Internet will have difficulties keeping up. It is up to us to maintain that balance and choose to include physical literary text rather than viewing and reading online.
I think the literature that we read shapes our definition of what it means to be "literate". For example, someone reading canon literature is perceived to be more "literate" than someone who reads only comic books. We tend to associate complexity, depth, and difficulty with classical literature and tend to disregard other mediums simply because on the surface they seem overly simplistic even though they may contain depth and substance too.
The importance of "
" or western languages as the "
or medium of communication.
i.e. Native parents begin to see the importance of their children learning English.
(Barman, 112-113 )
Education may be available to the masses, yet the education available to everyone is not necessarily
of education available is not the same for everyone.
Language as a
Reflection of Power
Text books may be losing their value in schools, but media through computers and smart boards being introduced in the classrooms help enhance education especially for students with learning disabilities in ways books can't. ( Read and write which you highlight a sentence and it reads it back to you or Inspiration which allows you to map out your ideas and create a proper idea structure for essays and story ideas. How does lack of funding in classrooms support the resources needed for students of 2013?
Students of 2013
Slang vs Jargon
Vernacular speech vs
Silence as a form of Representation, Repression, Reflection
Though the Western world typically prides itself as a civilized filled with literature a highly literate society, we must renegotiate reality with our past, our present, and our future. We are now re-evaluating our "success" as a modern, civilized society as we try to negotiate our past in respects to our treatment minority groups.
Previously our narratives were dominated by white Anglo-Saxon narratives. However more recent investigations have led to a new shift in examining the lives of more ordinary figures. This also reflects a new shift in our society during the 20th and 21st century.
This includes Native Americans, African Americans, and women as part of a "minority" in our society, not because they were a small groups, but because they were so "minor" in status.
Idea that society
ideas of class and
How literate are we?
Younger generations are losing their literacy more and more to abbreviations and spellcheckers. If literacy responds to the demands of the society (e.g. in the late nineteenth-century Canada not everyone was able to read and write), does that mean that the today's literacy is degenerating because there is no need to properly spell because of the technology?
How many languages do you speak?
When discussing knowledge of second and third languages, what about our perception of different accent people have when speaking English? Anything said with a British accent will be taken for granted, but what about other accents?
Teenagers tend to make fun of other newly arrived students who barely speak English and have an accent, but having an accent means that you speak at least one more language.
What does it mean to be fluent?
- Knowledge and Understanding
- Thinking and Inquiry
Grade 10 literacy test
Grade 6 EQAO test
Grade 6 EQAO test
Is this an accurate test?
Only tests reading and writing.
How does this affect teachers?
Are teachers who do not utilize technology in their classrooms responsible for children not obtaining digital literacy?
Will these teachers be left behind?
The Importance of Literacy - Then and Now
"Literate farmers able to read and understand the contracts had distinct advantages over their illiterate counterparts, who were more exposed to exploitation and poverty." (The Promise of Schooling, p. 33)
Are individuals who are less literate today more likely to be exploited and live within the confines of a lower socioeconomic status?
How do the texts we have read influence how we think about literacy and/or second language education?
The differentiation of treatment of the Native Americans and Whites was ironic. Government officials wanted Native children to be more "like white people, yet they were totally segregated in education and life.
Will financially stable students who can afford technology be the only ones who will profit from the increase of technology usage in the classrooms? What about the students who can not afford technological devices?
Are we more
of difference in language nowadays? Do we provide enough
? History shows we have made strides to show equality, but studies have shown that
learners still struggle with school work.
This picture can be seen in two different ways:
1) Let's assume the child represents all the minorities in the articles and "The Promise of Schooling." In a time where education was promoted by the dominant group, when minorities were showing that they were equally as competent as the dominant group, the dominant group literally cut off the legs of the social mobility ladder by limiting what the minorities could achieve so that their positions would not be threatened.
2) If by any chance someone was able to reach the top, then they would not be able to come back down. For example, the aboriginal students who became accustomed to the white man's traditions slowly began to forget their own as they would be punished for doing so. Upon returning back to their tribes, they were not able to integrate into their society and when turning back to the dominant society, they could not integrate there also thus leaving them in limbo between their home society and the dominant society.
How far do teachers have to go to incorporate technology in the classroom?
Teachers are lifelong learners. Teaching in the 21st century requires new innovated ideas for children to gain knowledge. New innovated ideas such as the use of technology, will assist in educating children. Digital literacy will increase student engagement in learning. Stick with the times.
constructing text into different meanings
putting yourself into someone else shoes
comprehending periods of time where education was struggle to obtain
visualizing the text in your own mind about gender and culture discrimination
producing questions about the importance of schooling and contradictions