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Transcript of TWPSG7A
THE HISTORY OF CANADA By: Sabby J Gr.7 2015
~1534 The First Nations People and Jacques Cartier~
In 1534 The First Nations People
were living independently and peacefully
on the North American Continent.
Jacques Cartier got sent on a mission by the
king to find two things:
1. a shipping route for traders and
2. gold and precious metals to make France rich.
Instead Cartier sailed upon the North American Continent. Little did he know it was already inhabited.
~ 1542 Cartier's last Voyage~
~1634 - 1639 The Religious People~
In 1634 a group called the Jesuits formed. Their so-called mission was to convert as many First Nations as they could to the Roman Catholic Religion. They also wanted to establish the first schools for boys. By 1639 they were already beginning the construction of Sainte-Marie among the Huron. Meanwhile, a group of three Ursuline Nuns were traveling to Quebec to convert First Nations to the Roman Catholic religion as well. The Ursuline Nuns established the first schools for girls.
The First Nations didn't believe in the Roman Catholic Religion. They believed that a Great Spirit had power over all things, the animals, trees, clouds etc. They also believed that the Sun had a great power. When an animal was killed for food there was a prayer to the spirit of the animal. The Europeans thought their beliefs and way of life was wrong.
~1656 The Coureurs des Bois~
Many First Nations People were fur traders because
they had all the resources. They never wasted any part
of an animal, especially furs.
They focused on fur hats because they were in
high demand in Europe. The Coureurs des bois were
an illegal group of traders who left the colony to trade
directly with the trappers and the hunters.
New France: Seigneurs, Habitants, and
the Filles du Roi
The majority of new comers to New France became farmers. There were two types of people in New France,
the Seigneurs and Habitants. Seigneurs were
men who had won the kings favour. Habitant
families were workers, they usually worked
for the Seigneurs. There was a shortage of
women in New France. So, they shipped in
single women, mainly orphans. They were called the Filles du Roi.
Without the First Nations Peoples the Europeans wouldn't have survived. But, that didn't mean the Europeans treated them fairly. In 1609 the First Nations persuaded Samuel de Champlain to help them ambush the Iroquois. After the battle, that they won, Champlain named the river that was next to the battle plains after himself. The new comers did not have any respect for the First Nations Peoples beliefs. They introduced them to alcohol which poisoned their communities. The biggest effect of the new comers were diseases, such as small pox.
In 1542 was Jacques Cartier's last voyage. Having traveled to and explored the St. Lawrence river, Stadacona, Hochelaga and many more places in the North American Continent
he had made quite a relationship with
the First Nations People. France had
high expectations for this European explorer but
despite his determination, he never found a
shipping route to the Orient or enough riches to
make France rich.
~1601 Interaction with the
First Nation Peoples~
~The Hierarchy of
In New France there was distant levels of status and authority. The government and the church were official structures that directed life in New France. Only men in those times could become skilled workers. Also, there were Indentured Servants. These were really poor men who agreed to be sent to the colony to labour for a family to earn a very little amount of money. They would work for 3 years and then be sent free. There were never more than 402 slaves in New France. The king, Viceroy, and the Minister of the Navy were at the top of the civil hierarchy of New France. Right at the bottom was the Captain of the Militia and the Citizens.
~The Government and the Church of New France~
The governor was the highest rank in
New France. He was treated like a king
and was expected to act like one. Louis
de Buade, Count Frontenac who held the
position from 1672 to 1682 and 1689 to
1698 was the most famous governor of
New France. There was also a person who
had to do the normal everyday jobs. This
person was called the Intendant of New
France. In 1674, Francois de Laval, was appointed first Bishop of Quebec, but his biggest accomplishment was setting up the Seminary of Quebec in 1663. His major objective was to create a diocese of Quebec.
~1701 The Great Peace of Montreal~
The Great Peace of Montreal
was a treaty between the
First Nations and New
France. It said that they
could have 16 years of
peace and trading before
war started again. The
treaty was signed on
August 4th 1701 by the Governor of New France, Louis-Hector de Calliere, and 1300 representatives of the 40 Aboriginal nations.
~1774 The Quebec Act~
The Quebec Act was a way to keep the French happy by letting the French keep their own way of life. It also expanded the borders of Quebec to get more better fur-trading paces. One effect was that the Catholics could now be members of the government. Also it allowed the French colonists keep their language, their religion
and the seigneurial system. But after the
British passed the treaty the colonists
started to get mad at them. You see, since
the borders changed so that the Ohio
Valley belonged to Quebec again, the
colonists from the Thirteen Colonies
couldn't settle their. They thought they
deserved this land because they were the
ones who had been loyal to British during the
Seven Years War.
~1754 -1763 The Seven Years War~
The Seven Years War took place from 1754 to 1763. It was mainly between the French and the British but effected many more countries. The War began when the French forcefully banished British colonists from the Ohio valley in 1754. This angered the British Colonies.
In 1755, Britain and France sent thousands of soldiers
to North America. About a year later, they went to Europe
and both nations declared war. By 1759, the war spread
to Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and the Caribbean.
Quebec was under attack by a British fleet and army.
The war ended in 1763 when France and Britain signed the
Treaty of Paris. The British won the war, making them the
worlds leading colonial power.
~1775 The Revolutionary War~
In 1775 a part of the colonial
army marched north to ambush
Quebec. One army attacked
Montreal and one attacked
Quebec City. The army who
attacked Montreal, was ready
and prepared for battle, they
managed to capture Montreal.
But, the army that attacked
Quebec City was unsuccessful. They were not prepared. As a result, they ran out of food, and many of them got small pox and died. When they made an attempt to attack, their commander died. Their second commander died of small pox. They had to retreat. Montreal belonged to the British again.
~1773 The Boston Tea Party~
In 1771, the British decided to tax tea to
help pay for the war. The colonists
didn't think it was fair for them to do
so because they already paid a lot of
money to support British armies.
They showed their anger by protesting.
Some colonists dressed up as First
Nations then went aboard a ship that delivered tea and threw all the crates off in protest. This youtube video is all about the Boston Tea Party.
~The War of 1812~
The War of 1812 was a very significant
part of history. It was a war between the
British, the United States, the North
American colonies and the First Nations
that lasted two and a half years. It was
fought in Upper and Lower Canada and
at sea. More than half of the British armed forces were made up of Canadian militia. The Americans were taking a great risk by battling the British, because they were a fairly new country.The War of 1812 ended at the end of 1814 when the Treaty of Ghent was signed. It guaranteed that the United States and Britain would end their battle.
Thanks for Watching!!!
The Rebellions were a group of people that didn't like the way the British were governing them, so they wanted big changes. These people were living in Upper and Lower Canada. The rebellions started in 1837. In 1837, journalist William Lyon Mackenzie led 700 armed rebels with pikes, pitchforks, and rifles and met up with 20 loyalists. The loyalists began shooting and the
rebels front line fell to the ground
to begin shooting. Two rebels and
one loyalist were dead. Three days
later, Canadian militia and rebels
fought at Montgomery's Tavern.
The Rebels spread and the rebel
leader fled. In 1838, the last of
the rebels were hanged
~1814 The Treaty of Ghent~
~1776 The American Declaration of Independence~
The British North Americans were very angered by the taxes and the Quebec Act. In the summer
of 1776, representatives of the Thirteen Colonies held a meeting in Philadelphia.
They announced that the United States of America was an independent country on July 4th 1776.
Quebec wasn't going to support them in the war against the British.
The Treaty of Ghent was the treaty that ended the War of 1812. It stated that Britain would give up the claims for the North West Territory's. It also stated that both countries would work together to end the slave trade.
It was signed in Ghent, Belgium on December 24, 1814.
* LESSON 18: The Rebellions of 1837
* The War Of 1812
*Bain,Colin M. Pearson Canadian History Canada: Pearson Canada Inc. 2008