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World War I

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by

Mark Twain Carroll

on 8 May 2014

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Transcript of World War I

WORLD
WAR
I
(THE GREAT WAR)

Conclusion
And one more thing...
is here
Allied Powers-

United Kingdom (Britain)
France
Russia 1914-1917
USA in 1917

Italy 1915-1918
Basics
When
WHO
When
Where
Who
Why

July 28, 1914-Nov 11, 1918
Central Powers-

Germany
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Italy 1914-1915
Why
Where
Mostly Europe
But also in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East
Major European alliances
Nationalism
Imperialism
Industrialization
Arms races


1. Holy Alliance=Prussia, Russia, Austria

2. Three Emperor's League=Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary

3. Triple Alliance=Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

4. Triple Entente=Britain, France, Russia

-Alliances-
-Arms Race-
-Competition between two or more countries for the best armed forces

-Each country competes to produce a larger numbers of weapons, greater armies, or better military technology

-No one actually "wins" an arms race, so how does it end?
World War I Begins
Franz Ferdinand was heir to the Austria-Hungary throne

June 28, 1914- Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie are assassinated by Serbian college student, Gavrilo Princip

Princip did not like the Austrian-Hungarian influence in his country

Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia

Everyone declares war on everyone by the end of August
"All Quiet on the Western Front"
German armies begin moving in August, 1914
Attack France through Belgium
French and British armies were slowly beaten back
Battle of Nueve Chapelle in March 1915-22,000 casualties
British victory, stops German advance
Western Front settles into a stalemate, trench warfare begins
Major Battles on the Western Front
Battle of Verdun, 1916-French and Germans shelled each other's trenches for 3 months.
-40 million artillary shells were fired.
-542,000 French casualties and 433,000 German casualties

Somme Offensive, 1916-Series of British attacks that pushed the Germans back
-60,000 Britsh killed the first day
-First time the tank was ever used in history
-Over 1 million casualties, one of the bloodiest battles in history
Trench Warfare
When armies become immobile, they dig in
Becomes a war of attrition
War of attrition is wearing down your enemy through destroying massive amounts of men and material
Trench warfare is fought through constant artillery bombardments and assaults on fixed positions
New Technology
Industrialization led to more advanced weaponry
Tanks
Machine guns
Flamethrowers
Airplanes
Poison gas
-The Red Baron-
Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen

-The "Red Baron" was an ace German fighter pilot, considered one of the greatest fighter pilots of all time

-Richthofen shot down over 80 enemy aircraft

-Was killed on April 21, 1918 when a British plane's bullet tore through his heart and lungs

-Managed to safely land his plane, died soon afterward
-Ace-
-Expert fighter pilot
-A pilot becomes an ace after shooting down 5 enemy aircraft
-Railroads are used to move men and material to the front with rapid speed and in massive amounts

-Telegraph lines make communication almost instant
-Orders can now be given across hundreds of miles in minutes
-First time in history planes are used in combat

-The Air Force is born

-the sky becomes another battlefield to fight over
-Tanks, The Iron Cavalry-
Germany only deployed 20 tanks
Invented by the British

Originally called "landships"

British deployed 2,500 tanks in the war


Horses and cavalry troops became useless
Poison Gas
WWI saw extensive use of poison gas
Most common was mustard gas
Mustard gas is yellow in color, settles in like a fog, and can remain active in the ground for weeks
Only high doses are fatal, but mustard gas causes agonizing wounds
Skin instantly blisters, eyes become sore, and vomiting occurs
Mustard gas then burns and causes bleeding/swelling in the lungs and throat
Death occurred when the throat closed and the victim suffocated
Victims often died slowly in agonizing pain, it took about 4-5 weeks to die
-The use of gas is an example of "chemical warfare"
-Using toxic substances as weapons
-Soldiers wore gas masks to protect themselves
-Using poison gas as a weapon was declared illegal at the end of the war
Trench Life
A typical British soldier's year could be divided as follows:
15% front line
10% support line
30% reserve line
20% rest
25% other (hospital, traveling, leave, training courses, etc.)

Even if no attacks were taking place, soldiers would still be in danger of being killed from snipers, gas, artillery, and disease

1 out of every 2 soldiers was killed or wounded in the trenches, your chances of making it through unhurt were 50/50
-Disease-
Medical practices were primitive and there were no antibiotics
Trenches were very unclean and bacteria thrived
Poor hygiene also led to fungal conditions, such as trench mouth and trench foot
Gangrene was the most common disease, required amputation for treatment
War Fever
People were excited for the war
Europe had not seen a major war since Napoleon in the early 1800's
Everyone was proud of their nation, their wealth, and their industrial power
They thought it would be a great adventure and the fighting over by the end of the summer
Armies of WWI

-Friends, family, classmates, and people from the same neighborhood all enlisted together

-"Enlist"- volunteer to join the military

-If you enlisted together, you served in the same unit together

-This means that a unit could be all the boys from a high school class, all the men from the same workplace, or an entire town's male population

-You fought alongside friends, family, and neighbors
WWI Propaganda
Propaganda- a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the beliefs of a community toward some cause
Propaganda usually selects which facts to use, this is called "lying by omission"
WWI was one of the first conflicts to extensively use propaganda
4 types of propaganda
GUILT/MANLINESS
FEAR/REVENGE
INSPIRATION/COURAGE
WOMEN/SEX
Propaganda Assignment
Create a propaganda poster for the US for either WWI or the current conflicts
Remember, good propaganda has a powerful image, few words, and a simple message
Be sure to choose one of the 4 propaganda categories: Fear/Revenge, Women/Sex, Guilt/Manliness, Courage/Inspiration
Gallipoli Campaign
Britain and France attempted to invade and conquer the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
Began with a massive beach invasion on April 25, 1915-40,000 killed on the first day
Gallipoli settled into trench warfare until British and French forces retreated from Turkey in January, 1916
220,000 Allied casualties and 250,000 Turkish casualties
One of the worst defeats the Allies suffered in WWI
The Eastern Front
Russia had been having a lot of problems before the war

People were upset with Tsar Nicholas and his poor leadership

Poverty was high, people didn't trust the government, and communists were slowly becoming more powerful

In the first year of the war, Russia lost 5,000,000 men

The war caused massive starvation, job loss, and suffering among the Russian civilians

The Russian Civil War began in 1917 between those loyal to Tsar Nicholas (White Russians) and the Communists (Red Russians)
The First Communist Nation
Russia made a seperate peace with Germany and got out of WWI in 1917
Tsar Nicholas and his entire family (the Romanovs) were executed in the basement on the Royal Palace on in summer 1918
The Communists eventually defeated the White Russians in 1922
Vladimir Lenin took power and Russia became the Soviet Union, the first ever communist country
Rasputin
Tsar Nicholas' only son, Alexei, was a severe hemophiliac
Haemophilia-disease that prevents blood from clotting, a minor cut could kill you
No doctors could help Alexei and his worried mother heard of a religious recluse with holy healing abilities
The man's name was Grigori Rasputin
Rasputin was able to heal Alexei and stop his bleeding even though he used no modern medicine
No one understood how he did it, and the royal family began to trust him completely and believed he came from God
Rasputin began influencing the political and military decisions in Russia
Many Russian elite and military officers did not trust Rasputin and feared the influence he had on the royal family
He was eventually murdered by Russian political officials who saw how he was destroying the royal family
America Gets Involved
By 1917, the war is going poorly for the Allies in Europe
They wanted the US to get involved, but Americans did not care about a European war
Two key incidents get America in the war by 1918
1-Sinking of the "Luisitania"
2-Zimmerman Telegram
The Luisitania
-British passenger ship
-Sunk by a German submarine in 1915
-Killed 1,198 civilians
Zimmerman Telegram-

-Message written in 1917 from Germany to Mexico

-Germany promised Mexico their old territory in the US if they went to war with America

-The note was intercepted by the British and used to turn the US against Germany

-Mexico would not have gone to war with the US anyway, militarily they could not have won and the US population would not have accepted Mexican rule
The 100 Days Offensive
-America entered the war late and used fresh troops to break the stalemate on the Western Front
-The Battle of the Argonne brought about the end of the war
-Lasted during the fall of 1918
-187,000 Allies and 190,000 Germans were killed
Armistice Day

-On November 11, 1918 the First World War officially ended
-German soldiers had finally been pushed out of France and knew that the war was over
-The war ended in a total cease-fire, everyone stopped fighting at the same time
-The Allies were victorious
WWI resulted in 35,000,000 soldier and
civilian casualties

One of the bloodiest wars in human history

Forever changed the face of the world
Social Effect of WWI
The astronomical death toll devastated communities
WWI veterans are known as the "Lost Generation"
Led to collective trauma
Treaty of Versailles
Blames Germany entirely for the war
German military could be no larger than 100,000 troops
League of Nations is created
German territory is taken away and new nations are created from it
Germany has to pay reparations for the war
-alliances were formed to keep balance of power in Europe
-4 major alliance systems existed between 1800-1914
breaks when Prussia+Austria form their new countries
breaks when Germany+Austria-Hungary kick out Russia out for being too communist friendly
the 3 major powers in central Europe...all dislike Russia and/or France
formed by France+Britain to counter the Triple Alliance...no one really likes Russia but they are too big to ignore
ALLIANCES GROW
-Germany+Austria-Hungary needed to fuel their continued industrial revolution...literally

-Germany was one of the first countries to start using oil as fuel

-Germany formed an alliance with the Ottoman Empire who controlled the large Middle East Oil reserves

-Ottomans also hated the Russians+British so it was an easy choice for them to join the Central Powers
THE BALKANS---"THE POWDER KEG"
-Germany+Austria-Hungary needed to build a railway to the Middle East for oil

-they would have to go through the Balkans in order to do so

-the Ottoman Empire was losing power in the region and Austria-Hungary was moving in

-AH ate up the country of Bosnia in 1908/formed an alliance with Bulgaria to build a railway there

-upset Serbia because they felt threatened from all sides, and many Serbs lived in Bosnia

-Serbia formed an alliance with Russia to protect themselves
Balkans-1914
INDUSTRIALIZATION
-INDUSTRIALIZATION+URBANIZATION=MODERNIZATION

-MODERNIZED MAN HAS NEW PHILOSOPHY ON LIFE...INVINCIBILITY

-MANKIND IS AT ITS PEAK IN 1914

-HUMAN BEINGS ARE HEALTHIER, WEALTHIER, SMARTER, STRONGER, MORE ADVANCED SOCIALLY+TECHNICALLY THAN EVER BEFORE IN HUMAN HISTORY

-WE HAVE MAJOR CITIES, FACTORIES, CONSUMERISM, ADVANCED SCIENCES, AND THE ABILITY TO BEND NATURE TO OUR WILL (people can fly by 1914...think about it...f***ing FLY!!!)

-MAN IS UNSTOPPABLE
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