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UK Great Britain

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by

Peter Zolczer

on 21 September 2014

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Transcript of UK Great Britain

Terminology
England
Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
United Kingdom
United Kingdom of Great Britain
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Brief History
Brief History
The
Romans
conquered most of the island. Those parts became the Ancient Roman province of
Britannia
.
Brief History
At about the same time,
Gaelic
tribes from Ireland invaded the north-west, absorbing both the
Picts
and
Britons
of northern Britain, eventually forming the
Kingdom of Scotland
in the 9th century.
Brief History
In the
9th century
, a series of Danish assaults on northern English kingdoms led to them coming under Danish control.

In the 1
0th century
, however, all the English kingdoms were unified under one ruler as the
kingdom of England
when the last constituent kingdom, Northumbria, submitted to Edgar in 959.
Geography
Terminology, Brief History and Geography
Great Britain
England
England is a
country
that is part of the United Kingdom.

It shares land borders with
Scotland
to the north and
Wales
to the west.

The
Irish Sea
lies north west of England, whilst the
Celtic Sea
lies to the southwest. The
North Sea
to the east and the
English Channel
to the south separate it from continental Europe.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is an
island
in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe.

The island is the
largest
island of the British Isles, the largest island in Europe and the ninth-largest in the world.
Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain
was a sovereign state
in north-west Europe that existed from
1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800
.

The state came into being with the union of the kingdoms of
England and Scotland
.
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
commonly known
as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a
sovereign state
located off the northwestern coast of continental Europe.

The name "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" was adopted by the Royal and Parliamentary Titles
Act 1927
. It reflected the independence of the
Irish Free State
, and the partition of Ireland,
in 1922
.
United
Kingdom of Great Britain
?
?
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the
formal name
of the United Kingdom
between 1801 and 1927
, reflecting the fact that until 1922,
all of Ireland
was a part of the state.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Although the United Kingdom,
as a sovereign state, is a country
, England, Scotland, Wales, and to a lesser degree, Northern Ireland, are also regarded as
countries
, though they are
not sovereign states
.

Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government.

The British Prime Minister's website has used the phrase
"countries within a country"
to describe the United Kingdom.
United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
Until about 14,000 years ago, Great Britain was joined to Ireland, and as recently as 8,000 years ago it was joined to the continent.
'Cheddar Man' - 7150 BC
Great Britain's
Iron Age

inhabitants are known as the
Britons
,
a group speaking a
Celtic language
.
After the Roman Empire fell, the
Britons
of the south and east of the island were assimilated or displaced by
invading Germanic tribes
(Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, often referred to collectively as
Anglo-Saxons
).
The south-east of Scotland was colonised by the
Angles
and formed,
until 1018
, a part of the
Kingdom of Northumbria
. Ultimately, the population of south-east Britain came to be referred to, after the
Angles
, as the
English people
.
In
1066
, England was conquered
by the
Normans
.
Wales
came under Anglo-Norman control in
1282
, and was officially annexed to England in the
16th century.
Brief History
On
20 October 1604 King James
, who had succeeded separately to the two thrones of England and Scotland, proclaimed himself
"King of Great Brittaine, France and Ireland"
.
Brief History
England and Scotland each remained legally separate countries with their own parliaments until
1707
.

From
1 May 1707
a
united kingdom
was formed, with a single, united parliament.


England
- country within a country (UK)
Great Britain
- island (geographical name)

Kingdom of Great Britain
- 1707 - 1800
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
- 1801 - 1927 (1922)
United Kingdom
(United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) - 1927 until today
Summary
Geography
GB is separated from the mainland by the North Sea and by the
English Channel
, which narrows to
34 km
at the
Straits of Dover
.
It occupies an area of
209,331 km2
, excluding the smaller surrounding islands.
The
North Channel
,
Irish Sea
,
St George's Channel
and
Celtic Sea
separate the island from the
island of Ireland
to its west.
Geography
The island is physically connected with continental Europe via the undersea rail tunnel, the
Channel Tunnel (
1993).
The island is marked by
low, rolling
countryside
in the east and south, while hills and
mountains
predominate in the western and northern regions.
It is surrounded by over
1,000 smaller islands and islets
.
Geography
Land's End
, Cornwall


John o' Groats
, Caithness

= 1,349 km by road
Geography
The
English Channel
is thought to have been created between 450,000 and 180,000 years ago by two catastrophic
glacial lake outburst floods.
Around
10,000 years ago
, Great Britain was not an island, but an
upland region
of continental northwestern Europe
The
North Sea
was dry and acted as a land bridge, now known as
Doggerland
, which by
6500 BC
became submerged beneath it.
Biodiversity
The variety of
fauna
and
flora
is
limited
in comparison to continental Europe due to the
island's size
and the fact that wildlife has had
little time to develop
since the last glacial period.
Animals
Industrialization


Urbanization
great contribution to the overall loss of species
100 species
have become extinct in the UK
during the 20th
century, about 100 times of the "standard extinction rate".
Animals
Species, well adapted to urban areas:
brown
rat
red
fox
gray
squirrel
Animals
Rodents
make up
40%
of the mammal species:
squirrel
vole
mice
beaver
Animals
Largest land-based species:
red deer
Wealth of
birdlife,

583 species in total:
British shores:
seal, whale, dolphin
Plants
The flora comprises
3,354 vascular plant

species, of which 2,297 are native:
birch, beech, ash, hawthorn, elm,
oak, yew, pine, cherry, apple
There are at least
1,500
different species of
wildflower:
red poppies, bluebells, daisies, daffodils, rosemary, gorse, iris, ivy, mint, orchids, brambles, thistles...
Geography
The ten tallest mountains in the UK are all found in
Scotland
.

Highest peaks
:

Scotland
:
Ben Nevis, 1,344 metres

Wales
:
Snowdon (Snowdonia - area),
1,085 metres

England
: Scafell Pike (Cumbrian Mountains - area), 978 metres
Northern Ireland
: Slieve Donard (Mourne Mountains), 852 metres
Geography
The lowest point of the UK is in
the Fens
of East Anglia,
in England, parts of which lie up to
4 metres below sea level
.
Geography
The
longest

rivers
:

England:
River Thames
(346 km)
Scotland: River Tay (188 km)
N. Ireland: River Bann (122 km)
Wales: River Tywi (103 km)

The
largest lakes
(by surface area):

N. Ireland:
Lough Neagh
(381.7 km2)
Scotland: Loch Lomond (71.1 km2)
England: Windermere (14.7 km2)
Wales: Llyn Tegid (Bala Lake) (1.87 sq mi; 4.8 km2)
Geography
Climate

The climate of the UK is generally
temperate
, although significant local variation occurs.

In general the south of the country is warmer than the north, and the west wetter than the east.

Due to the warming influence of the
Gulf Stream
, the UK is significantly warmer than some other locations at similar latitude.
Geography
Natural resources

Agriculture
is intensive, highly mechanised, producing about
60% of food needs
with only
1%
of the labour force.
Land use
:

Arable land: 25%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures:
46%
Forests and Woodland: 10%
Other: 19%
The UK has a
variety of natural resources
including:
Geological
: coal, natural gas, rock salt, china, iron ore, tin, silver, gold, lead.
Agricultural
: arable land, wheat, barley, sheep
Full transcript