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Weather and Climate (Part 1)

Temperature, Humidity & Clouds
by

Aminurashid Juma'at

on 26 October 2015

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Transcript of Weather and Climate (Part 1)

Weather and Climate

Temperature
Humidity
Clouds

Weather & Climate
Weather: Condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time.
(Short term)

Climate: The average condition of the atmosphere of a specific place over a long period of time, usually 30 years.
(Long term)
Temperature
Definition: The degree of hotness or coldness of a place
Measured in degrees celsius (°C)
High temp: > 20 °C
Low temp: < 10° C
Calculating temperatures
Mean daily temperature:
Sum of hourly temperatures / 24
Diurnal temperature range: Maximum daily temperature –
Minimum daily temperature
Mean monthly temperature: Sum of mean daily temperatures in the month / Number of days in the month
Mean annual temperature: Sum of mean monthly temperatures in the year / 12
Annual temperature range: Maximum mean monthly temperature – Minimum mean monthly temperature
Humidity
(Amount of water in the air)
Relative humidity: the
ratio
between the actual amount of water vapour
present
in a mass of air and the maximum amount of water vapour the air could
hold
at a given temperature. (Value given in percentage)

[Actual amount of water vapour in the air (g/m3) / Maximum amount of water vapour the air can hold (g/m3) ] X 100
Note: Relative humidity can vary with temperature.

For example, the hotter the air, its capacity to hold water is increased. In other words, warm air can hold more water vapour than cool air.
Saturation:

Once the air holds the maximum amount of water vapour it can hold, it is said to be
saturated
.
Dew point: The
temperature
at which saturation takes place is known as the dew point.
Condensation takes place
Water vapour changes to liquid form by cooling
What affects temperature?
Factors affecting temperature
A) Latitude
B) Altitude
C) Distance from the sea
[Maritime vs Continental effect]
D) Cloud cover
Tropics
Tropics
Temperate
Temperate
Polar
Polar
0° latitude

(Equator)
23.5
°N latitude
23.5
°S latitude
90°N latitude
90°S latitude
Sun's rays hit the Earth directly, hence receives
maximum
solar energy throughout the year. Sun's solar energy strike this area at a higher angle of incidence.
The incoming solar energy gets
spread
out at higher latitudes, so the
temperate
regions experience
lower
temperatures.
Also notice how the Earth tilts.
How the Earth tilts in relation to the
sun
influences the
seasonal
temperatures in temperate regions located in the
northern
and
southern
hemisphere.
At polar regions, the sun's rays strike at at even
lower
angle of incidence at higher latitudes
(ie. 90° N) and so it experiences even lower temperatures.
North Pole
South Pole
Altitude
Calculating Temperatures
How latitudes affect temperatures
Distance from Sea
Maritime Effect
Continental effect
Cloud cover
Temperatures
decrease
with
increasing
altitude
Altitude
: Height of a place in relation to the sea level
Sun's
shortwave radiation

heats
up earth's surface
The
further
you are from the earth's surface, temperature
decreases
Longwave
radiation is emitted
from
the earth is reabsorbed by greenhouse gases
Air near to Earth's surface absorbs
more
heat from longwave radiation than air at higher altitudes
Air is
less
dense at higher altitudes. Dense air found closer at lower altitudes (sea level) is able to absorb
more
heat than less dense air at the top of a mountain
- the effect large ocean bodies have on the climate on coastal areas
Summer:
Air over sea is
cooler
than air over land. Land heats up
faster
than the sea. Cool air near the sea helps to
cool
down air in coastal areas when compared to places further in land.
Coastal areas have
cooler
summers
and
warmer
winters
Smaller
annual temperature range
- the effect continental surfaces have on the climate of inland areas.
Inland areas are
further
away from the sea hence its temperatures are not influenced by it
Inland areas experience
warmer
summers
and
colder
winters
Winter:
Air over the sea remains
warmer
than air over land. Sea cools more slowly than land. Warmer air over sea
raises
the temperature of coastal areas.
Higher
annual temperature range
(Maritime vs Continental effect)
TB 77
- the
extent
of the sky that is covered by clouds

Influences temperatures on earth's surface during the day and night
Cloud cover
reduces
the difference between
day
and
night
temperatures

TB 77, Fig 2.9

Clouds also absorb heat and re-radiates heat back to earth

Clouds reflect a large portion of the sun's energy back into space, cooling the earth's surface
At night, clouds absorb more heat that is radiated from the earth's surface
Prevents it from escaping into space
Air near earth's surface is kept warm at night

But what would the day and night temperatures be like if there are no clouds?
At night, without clouds, more heat is radiated from the earth's surface
Air over the earth's surface becomes cooler at night

In the day, the absence of clouds allows large amounts of the sun's energy to reach the earth
The earth's surface heats up quickly, so the air near it becomes warmer.

water vapour
water vapour
Air at Room Temperature
(24 °C)
Room air heated to 35°C
When room air temperature is heated to 35°C
Amount of water vapour
stays the same
but the
rise
in temperature allows the air to hold
more
water vapour
Air is not able to hold anymore water vapour
(Condensation is about the take place)
causes the formation of CLOUDS!
Temperature increases
Water converts to water vapour
Water cools at dew point and condenses into water droplets
Water droplets bump into each other and coalesce into clouds
Cloud: A visible mass of water droplets or ice crystals that are suspended in the atmosphere.

*Water may grow large enough to fall as precipitation (snow, rain, hail)
TB 75
TB 76
1000 metres
3000 metres
5000 metres
13°C
0°C
-13°C
Temperatures decrease with increasing altitude
Relative humidity is at 100%
TB
79
Consolidation
Refer to your textbook

pg
79
and answer the questions
2
to
6
in your Geography notebooks.
Question: What is the difference between weather and climate?
Surface temperature is very very hot with NO clouds in the day!!!! Argggghhh!!!! I'm melting!!!!
KQ 1 Why do different places experience different weather and climate?
Weather and Climate
Temperature
Humidity
Cloud
Rainfall
Wind and pressure
How clouds are formed?
Full transcript