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Weather and Climate (Part 1)
Transcript of Weather and Climate (Part 1)
Weather & Climate
Weather: Condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time.
Climate: The average condition of the atmosphere of a specific place over a long period of time, usually 30 years.
Definition: The degree of hotness or coldness of a place
Measured in degrees celsius (°C)
High temp: > 20 °C
Low temp: < 10° C
Mean daily temperature:
Sum of hourly temperatures / 24
Diurnal temperature range: Maximum daily temperature –
Minimum daily temperature
Mean monthly temperature: Sum of mean daily temperatures in the month / Number of days in the month
Mean annual temperature: Sum of mean monthly temperatures in the year / 12
Annual temperature range: Maximum mean monthly temperature – Minimum mean monthly temperature
(Amount of water in the air)
Relative humidity: the
between the actual amount of water vapour
in a mass of air and the maximum amount of water vapour the air could
at a given temperature. (Value given in percentage)
[Actual amount of water vapour in the air (g/m3) / Maximum amount of water vapour the air can hold (g/m3) ] X 100
Note: Relative humidity can vary with temperature.
For example, the hotter the air, its capacity to hold water is increased. In other words, warm air can hold more water vapour than cool air.
Once the air holds the maximum amount of water vapour it can hold, it is said to be
Dew point: The
at which saturation takes place is known as the dew point.
Condensation takes place
Water vapour changes to liquid form by cooling
What affects temperature?
Factors affecting temperature
C) Distance from the sea
[Maritime vs Continental effect]
D) Cloud cover
Sun's rays hit the Earth directly, hence receives
solar energy throughout the year. Sun's solar energy strike this area at a higher angle of incidence.
The incoming solar energy gets
out at higher latitudes, so the
Also notice how the Earth tilts.
How the Earth tilts in relation to the
temperatures in temperate regions located in the
At polar regions, the sun's rays strike at at even
angle of incidence at higher latitudes
(ie. 90° N) and so it experiences even lower temperatures.
How latitudes affect temperatures
Distance from Sea
: Height of a place in relation to the sea level
up earth's surface
you are from the earth's surface, temperature
radiation is emitted
the earth is reabsorbed by greenhouse gases
Air near to Earth's surface absorbs
heat from longwave radiation than air at higher altitudes
dense at higher altitudes. Dense air found closer at lower altitudes (sea level) is able to absorb
heat than less dense air at the top of a mountain
- the effect large ocean bodies have on the climate on coastal areas
Air over sea is
than air over land. Land heats up
than the sea. Cool air near the sea helps to
down air in coastal areas when compared to places further in land.
Coastal areas have
annual temperature range
- the effect continental surfaces have on the climate of inland areas.
Inland areas are
away from the sea hence its temperatures are not influenced by it
Inland areas experience
Air over the sea remains
than air over land. Sea cools more slowly than land. Warmer air over sea
the temperature of coastal areas.
annual temperature range
(Maritime vs Continental effect)
of the sky that is covered by clouds
Influences temperatures on earth's surface during the day and night
the difference between
TB 77, Fig 2.9
Clouds also absorb heat and re-radiates heat back to earth
Clouds reflect a large portion of the sun's energy back into space, cooling the earth's surface
At night, clouds absorb more heat that is radiated from the earth's surface
Prevents it from escaping into space
Air near earth's surface is kept warm at night
But what would the day and night temperatures be like if there are no clouds?
At night, without clouds, more heat is radiated from the earth's surface
Air over the earth's surface becomes cooler at night
In the day, the absence of clouds allows large amounts of the sun's energy to reach the earth
The earth's surface heats up quickly, so the air near it becomes warmer.
Air at Room Temperature
Room air heated to 35°C
When room air temperature is heated to 35°C
Amount of water vapour
stays the same
in temperature allows the air to hold
Air is not able to hold anymore water vapour
(Condensation is about the take place)
causes the formation of CLOUDS!
Water converts to water vapour
Water cools at dew point and condenses into water droplets
Water droplets bump into each other and coalesce into clouds
Cloud: A visible mass of water droplets or ice crystals that are suspended in the atmosphere.
*Water may grow large enough to fall as precipitation (snow, rain, hail)
Temperatures decrease with increasing altitude
Relative humidity is at 100%
Refer to your textbook
and answer the questions
in your Geography notebooks.
Question: What is the difference between weather and climate?
Surface temperature is very very hot with NO clouds in the day!!!! Argggghhh!!!! I'm melting!!!!
KQ 1 Why do different places experience different weather and climate?
Weather and Climate
Wind and pressure
How clouds are formed?