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Copy of Sweet recipe to solving problems
Transcript of Copy of Sweet recipe to solving problems
Population Growth is a major factor consumption, housing shortages, inflation, food, security, unemployment & environment degradation. Demography is the statistical analysis and description of population aggregates w/ reference to the distribution, vital statistics, sex and related factors.
to sociologists, it is the number of persons occupying a certain geographic area, drawing substance from their habitat and interacting w/ one another.
it is a collective group of individuals occupying a particular place at a given time.3 keywords are:
Demographers Demographers use statistical method in their analysis of demographic data PETERSEN defines demographers as people who gather about the size, distribution, composition and change in population in order to describe them.
Sources of Demographic Data Population Census like Population count Vital registration, statistics system like birth, death, marriage and divorce Sample or Special Surveys like surveys of household; and Demographic data gathered and processed by government agencies.
- refers to the no. of deaths per 1,000 of the total mid-year population in a particular place at a specified time, and is measured by the crude death rate.CBR= Registered number of death a yr. X 1,000 Total mid-year population Life Expectancy – refers to the average number of years a person can expect to live at the time of birth.
– another factor w/c affects population change. Push– refers to the unfavorable, unattractive condition which impel a person or group of persons to move at an area. Natural Disasters – such as famines, floods or volcanic eruption, political repressions; religious or racial discrimination or persecution; or internal disorders such as war and other forms of conflict.
Characteristics of Population
Age structure – refers to the proportion of people at the different age levels.
Sex composition – refers to how the total population is composed in terms of being males or females.
Dependency ratio – refers to the proportion of 0 – 4 and 65 - over age levels per 100 pesos age 15 – 64.
Population density – refers to the number of persons that can be equally and statistically distributed per square km in a given geographical area considering the population in the said area.
World Population Growth Overall the world’s popular grew slowly until about 1850 – so slowly, in fact the several hundred thousand years were needed for the earth to reach one billion ( Wilford, 1981). The earth’s second billion were added by 1930 due to advances in medicine, farming transportation. Population is estimated to cross the 6 billion thresholds in October 1999.
Theories on Population Growth
Malthusian Theory – the English scholar Thomas Maltus (1766 – 1834) whose theories appeared in 1798 in “An Essay on the Principle of Population”, theorized pessimistically that population was uncontrollable and that it would, at a future date, reach and then exceed a level at which the planet could sustain in incredible high population numbers.
Marxian Theory – Karl Marx took exception to the Malthusian doctrine. Marx believed that the problem was not primarily one of the population but one of the ownership of the means of production and the inequitable distribution of a society wealth. Marx depicted capitalism as creating a surplus population so as to drive down wages and maximize profits.
Demographic Transition Theory – the concept demographic transition refers to the three char. stages of the population dynamics for societies under going industrialization. In the first stage, which is character of preindustrial societies both the birth rate and the death rate are high and relatively stable. The second stage is a transitional one, the birth rate remains but the death rate declines as nutrition, health and sanitation improve. Stage three, both the birth rate and the death rate are low and in balance again.
Consequences of Rapid Population Growth Nearly half the world population are undernourished to the point law vitality and high vulnerability to starvation disease and death.Most people leave in poverty, the resources needed for capital development are used up, and it’s unemployment is high.Over crowding occurs public services are strained, and the environment is polluted.
Criminality and illegal activities like drug trafficking, robbery, car napping, white slavery due to poverty.Migration urban centers has led the problems of congestion, slum and squatters, urban poor and other urban problems.Quality of education deter rates, as there are not enough class rooms, teachers, ect.Moral & spiritual degradation (sex, “flesh trade”, immoral acts, growing materialism, lack of spirituality)
Measures on Population Control - Population explosion refers to the remarkable increases in population brought by stubbornly high birth rate & declining death rate ( Hauser 1969 ).A no. of resolutions to come up w/ programs aimed at curbing population explosion have been adopted by United Nation Organization and its member counties in three previous conventions.
Adoption of planned parenthood or family planning as a national policy of many countries.Disseminating information on family planning through government agencies and even private institutions.Legalization of abortion as a means of deterring unwanted pregnancies in the U.S. and many European countries.Re – educating the people concerning their beliefs and practices w/c favor big family size.
Softening of the Roman Catholic Church on the use of contraceptives or artificial birth control.Encouragement of delayed marriage and control of births within marriage.In the Philippines, the population commission was created to serve as a policy making, coordinating and monitoring agency on matters pertaining to population.The United Nation Population Fund ( UNFPA ) provides fun for contraceptive research and production. It is also conducts information and educational activities in family planning.
Terms identified in the NSFI standards
that should be familiar with :
The food safety system that's been in use since the 1960s is HACCP. Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points.
HACCP is widely used by food manufacturers and processors and is now being applied in the foodservice industry.
It combines up-to-date technical information with step-by-step procedures to help operators evaluate and monitor the flow of food through their facilities.
This appear vulnerable in terms of introducing a hazard into the food (Cousins, Foskett, & Gillespie, 2002)
The core objectives of the process is to identify and control the three types of food safety threats in any commercial kitchen:
1. Biological contaminants or microorganisms
2. Chemical contaminants
3. Physical contaminants
On introducing the HACCP process into food production, the following elements have to be implemented:
A detailed flowchart needs to be drawn up showing the path of the food throughout the manufacturing or kitchen process.
All production details need to be identified so that any special characteristics are noted that could become a cause for concern.
Each stage in the production must be carefully examined to see if there is the possibility that a hazard could occur. The risks are then recorded as high, medium or low. Monitoring controls are then implemented.
HACCP Terminology (Andrews, 2008)
Acceptable level: Does not pose risk.
Control Point: Where there is a risk.
Critical Control Point: Unacceptable risk.
Critical Limit: The parameters within which physical, biological, and chemical risks must be controlled.
Deviation: Failure to control a critical risk.
HACCP Plan: Formal written procedures for safety.
Hazard: Unacceptable consumer risk.
HACCP Terminology (Andrews, 2008):
Monitoring: Planned sequence of observations and measurements to keep accurate record.
Preventive measure: means to exclude, destroy, eliminate, or reduce a hazard.
Risk: a likely occurrence of a hazard.
Sensitive Ingredient: any ingredient historically associated with a known microbiological hazard.
Verification: means, methods, procedures and tests to determine if the HACCP system is in compliance with the HACCP plan.
There are seven basic HACCP steps:
1. Identify hazards and assess their severity and risks.
2. Determine critical control points (CCPs) in food preparation.
3. Determine critical control limits (CCLs) for each CCP identified.
4. Monitor critical control points and record data.
5. Take corrective action whenever monitoring indicates a critical limit is exceeded.
6. Establish effective record-keeping system to document HACCP systems.
7. Establish procedures to verify that HACCP system is working.
Examples of critical control points ( CCPs) are:
Inspection (including temperature checks) of goods on delivery and before use.
Separate storage and handling of ingredients and the finished product.
Correct temperature ranges for refrigerated frozen goods.
Cleaning procedures for equipment and utensils.
Cross-contamination with other menu items in process.
Personal hygiene and health standards.
Proficiency in use and cleaning of equipment.
Critical Control Points for Protecting Food
1. Raw food is cooked to correct minimum internal temperature.
2. Hot food must be maintained at a minimum temperature of 140 degrees Fahrenheit. (60 degrees Celsius) or above while holding and serving.
3. Leftover hot food is cooled quickly and safely to &0 degrees Fahrenheit (21 degrees Celsius) within 2 hours and from 70 degrees Fahrenheit (21 degrees Celsius) to 40 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius) or below within an additional 4 hours.
4. Leftover hot food is reheated quickly (within 2 hours) to 165 degrees Fahrenheit (74 degrees Celsius).
5. Cold food must be maintained at 40 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius) or below while holding and serving.
6. Refrigeration equipment should be maintained at 36 degrees Fahrenheit to 38 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius to 3 degrees Celsius).
Use of HACCP in foodservice operations
The most important aspects to be considered are:
Handling and storage procedures from delivery to service of the menu items.
Holding items and temperatures.
A typical report form that a health inspector might use when her or she tours a foodservice operation. Code violations would be noted at the bottom of the form.
Demographic Data Provides as a basis for predicting future trends and making informed decisions. As PONOPIO states, demographic data are important for the formulation, implementation, evaluation of plans, policies and programs for education, housing, health, employment, transportation, recreational needs and other forms of social services.
Components of Population Change Fertility - Refers to the actual no. of children born to a woman or group of women. A simple way to measure fertility is to get the crude birth rate: the numbered of registered births per 1,000 of the population in a given area at a specified time.CBR= Registered number births in a yr. X 1,000 Total midyear population.
– refers to the favorable condition or attractions of a locality which lure a person or group of persons to move in to that area. Among these are favorable climate, employment opportunities, peace and order, political and religious freedoms, respect for human rights, better recreational & cultural facilities.
– is the spatial movement of a person or groups of persons within a country or specified territory, more or less for permanent residency.
Two types of Migration
– when one enters the country of destination.
– when one leave’s one country in order to move into another.
- Refers to two dimensional graph used to display the age gender structure of a population Three patterns:
Environmental destruction and degradation in order to produce food by any possible method, e.g. slash – and – burn agriculture.Many children are pushed to work for the sustenance of their everyday life through child labor & prostitution, and mendicancy.The high ratio of children to the adults of working age who must provide for their education and welfare not only places. A reserve strain on the national budget, but tends to temper improvements in the efficiency of education & health services to the nation’s children.