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States of Matter

States of Matter, Physical and Chemical Changes, Phase Diagrams, IMF (Summary) and Types of Mixtures

Nancy Cope

on 21 March 2017

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Transcript of States of Matter

States of Matter
describes the characteristics
describes the behavior

Only changes the physical properties
changes the chemical properties
makes a new substance
depends on the amount of matter
stay the same regardless of the amount of matter present
How do I know which type of change has occurred?
Evidence of a chemical change
1. evolution of a gas (bubbles)
2. formation of a precipitate
3. evolution of light
4. evolution/absorption of heat
5. change in color
These can be tricky! A chemical change always produces a new substance!
The three common states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.
definite unchanging volume
definite unchanging shape

particles (atoms/molecules) are close together, with little room for movement
definite unchanging volume
variable (change-able) shape

particles have room to move past one another
variable volume
variable shape

particles are free to move, and collide with one another often
What is vapor?
the word vapor is the name of a substance in the gas phase, when that substance is usually a liquid at room temperature.
water vapor is water in the gas state. the word "vapor" is used to show that water is usually a liquid.
External conditions can affect both physical and chemical properties.
Matter can undergo physical and chemical changes.
Physical properties can be observed without altering a substance's composition.
Chemical properties describe a substance's ability to combine with or change into one or more new substances.
A physical change alters the physical properties of a substance without changing its composition.
A chemical change involves a change in a substance's composition.
Phase Changes
Energy changes occur during phase changes.
States of a substance are referred to as "phases" when they coexist as physically distinct parts of a mixture.
Phase Diagram
Phase diagrams show how different temperatures and pressures affect the phase of a substance.
Phase Changes
gas to solid
solid to gas
liquid to solid
solid to liquid
gas to liquid
liquid to gas
What's the different between vaporization and evaporation?
evaporation occurs on the surface of the liquid
vaporization is the process by which a liquid changes to a gas or vapor.
If you watch, evaporation occurs from the top of the liquid, while vaporization occurs from the bottom of the liquid.
Melting Point
Boiling Point
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the external or atmospheric pressure
the temperature at which the forces holding the crystal lattice together are broken and it becomes a liquid
Normal melting or boiling point occur at standard atmospheric pressure (1 atm)
Most everyday matter occurs as mixtures - combinations of two or more substances.
A mixture is a physical blend of two or more pure substances in any proportion
Pure Substances
a pure substance cannot be separated by physical methods
Types of Mixtures
a combination of two or more pure substances that physically looks the same throughout
a combination of two or more pure substances that look different
sugar cookie
chocolate chip cookies
trail mix
a homogeneous mixture that does not scatter light
There are special types of heterogeneous mixtures.
a type of mixture that has very small particles
looks like a solution, but it DOES scatter light due to the particle size.
a mixture that has small particles but will settle over time.
The Law of Definite Proportions states that a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportions
The Law of Multiple Proportions states that if elements form more than one compound, those compounds will have compositions that are whole-number multiples of each other
elements are the smallest pieces of matter that keep their properties
chemical combinations of two or more elements and their properties differ from the properties of their component elements.
chemical combination of two or more elements with polar bonds
Separation of Mixtures
Mixtures can be separated by physical means
separates mixtures of solid and liquids
separation of two liquids by boiling point
separation of a solution - makes pure solid crystals
separates mixture of two solids, when one sublimes and the other does not
separates mixture of two liquids by polarity
Intermolecular Forces
determine a substance's state of matter at a given temperature
intermolecular forces are present between molecules of a substance - they describe how a substance's molecules or compounds interact with one another.
intramolecular forces are stronger than intermolecular forces.
Dispersion Forces
weak forces that result from temporary shifts in the electron placement around the atom
no lasting effect
instantaneous attraction or repulsion
Dipole-Dipole Forces
attractions between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules
stronger than dispersion forces
Hydrogen Bonding
dipole-dipole attraction that occurs between molecules containing hydrogen bonded to a oxygen, fluorine or nitrogen atom
not a real bond
What is a polar molecule?
a polar molecule has an uneven distribution of electron density around the atoms.
difference in electronegativity between atoms usually
The particles in liquid have a limited range of motion and are not easily compressed.
The intermolecular forces in a liquid affect the properties.
a measure of resistance of a liquid to flow
Surface Tension
a measure of the inward pull by particles in the interior
Cohesion & Adhesion
describes the force of attraction between identical molecules
describes the force of attraction between molecules that are different
Capillary Action
The particles in solids have a limited range of motion and are not easily compressed.
solids can be classified by their shape and composition
Crystalline Solids
a solids whose atoms, ions or molecules arranged in an orderly, geometric structure
the framework of the atoms is called a crystal lattice
the smallest arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice that has the same symmetry as the whole
crystal is a
unit cell
Molecular Solids
molecules are held together by intermolecular forces.
fairly soft, low to moderately high melting points; poor conductivity
dry ice
Covalent Network Solids
atoms connected by multiple covalent bonds
very hard; very high melting points; often poor conductivity
Carbon and sulfur form CNS
carbon has three allotropes; three different forms of carbon exist in the same state of matter
Ionic Solids
two ions bonded together
hard; brittle; high melting points; poor conductivity
potassium bromide
sodium chloride
calcium carbonate
Metallic Solids
positive metal ions surrounded by a sea of mobile electrons
soft to hard; low to very high melting points; malleable and ductile; excellent conductivity
Amorphous Solids
the particles are not arranged in a regular, repeating pattern
often forms when a molten material cools too quickly to allow for crystal formation
What a minute...
What is vapor pressure?
the pressure exerted on a liquid, by particles that had evaporated
Matter and Energy
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