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principle of management

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Waqeeh Ali

on 16 September 2012

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Transcript of principle of management

Communication issues in today’s
organizations Communication and
Information Technology In this section we examine five communication issues of particular significance to today’s managers: Managing communication in an internet world
Communicating with customers
1) Getting employee input
2) Communicating ethically Managing Communication in an internet world
E-mail is only one communication challenge in this internet world
Employees contribute regularly to blogs, social networks, wikis, and other web services
Managers are learning, the hard way sometimes, that all this new technology has created special communication challenges
The two main ones are
(1) Legal and security issues, and
(2) Lack of personal interaction LEGAL AND SECURITY ISSUES: Inappropriate use of company e-mail and instant messaging Loss of confidential and proprietary information due to inadvertent or deliberate dissemination or to hackers Manager needs to insure that confidential information is kept confidential Employees e-mails and blogs should not communicate Corporate computer and e-mail systems should be protected against hackers LACK OF PERSONAL INTERACTION: Being connected is not the same as face-to-face contact Difficulties occur in achieving understanding and collaboration in virtual environments Personal interaction isn’t physically possible, at certain times BEING CONNECTED VERSUS BEING CONCERNED: 1) Managing Internet gripe sites as a valuable
resource for unique insights into the organization
Employee complaints (“hot-button” issues)
Customer complaints 2)Responding to Internet gripe sites
Recognized them as a valuable source of information.
Post messages that clarify misinformation.
Take action to correct problems noted on the site.
Set up an internal gripe site.
Continue to monitor the public gripe site MANAGING THE ORGANIZATION’S KNOWLEDGE RESOURCES: Build online information databases that employees can access
Create “communities of practice” for groups of people who share a concern, share expertise, and interact with each other The Role of Communication in Customer Service COMMUNICATING EFFECTIVELY WITH CUSTOMERS: 1) Recognize the three components of the customer service delivery process:
The customer
The service organization
The service provider 2) Develop a strong service culture focused on the personalization of service to each customer
Listen and respond to the customer
Provide access to needed service information GETTING EMPLOYEES INPUT: Companies need to get input from their employees ideas such as reducing costs, improving delivery time, and so forth HOW TO LET EMPLOYEES KNOW THEIR INPUT MATTERS: Provide information about what’s going on, good and bad
Invest in training so that employees see how they impact the customer experience Make it easy for employees to give input by setting up different ways for them to do so (Online, suggestion box, preprinted cards, and so forth) COMMUNICATING ETHICALLY: 1) Ethical Communication
Includes all relevant information, is true in every sense, and is not deceptive in any way 2) How can managers encourage ethical communications?
Establish clear guidelines for ethical behavior, including ethical business
clearly define what is considered ethical and unethical behavior
3) “Politically Correct” Communication
Do not use words or phrases that stereotype, intimidate, or offend individuals based on their differences
However, choose words carefully to maintain as much clarity as possible in communications Any Question ??? Organizational Communication
ASAD M.Waqeeh Organizational Communication Types of Organizational Communication Formal Communication
Communication that follows the official chain of command or is part of the communication required to do one’s job.
Informal Communication
Communication that is not defined by the organization’s hierarchy.
Permits employees to satisfy their need for social interaction.
Can improve an organization’s performance by creating faster and more effective channels of communication. Lateral Diagonal Downwa
d Upwa
d Communication Flows Direction of Communication Flow Downward
Communications that flow from managers to employees to inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees.
Communications that flow from employees up to managers to keep them aware of employee needs and how things can be improved to create a climate of trust and respect. Direction of Communication Flow (cont’d) Lateral (Horizontal) Communication
Communication that takes place among employees on the same level in the organization to save time and facilitate coordination.
Diagonal Communication
Communication that cuts across both work areas and organizational levels in the interest of efficiency and speed. Types of Communication Networks Chain Network
Communication flows according to the formal chain of command, both upward and downward.
Wheel Network
All communication flows in and out through the group leader (hub) to others in the group.
All-Channel Network
Communications flow freely among all members of the work team. Three Common Organizational Communication Networks and How They Rate on Effectiveness Criteria The Grapevine An informal organizational communication network that is active in almost every organization.
Provides a channel for issues not suitable for formal communication channels.
The impact of information passed along the grapevine can be countered by open and honest communication with employees. Understanding
Communications By
M.Waqeeh Ali What Is Communication? [Types of Communication] Four Functions of Communication Control Motivation Emotional
Expression Information Functions of
Communication Motivation
Communications clarify for employees what is to done, how well they have done it, and what can be done to improve performance. Emotional Expression
Social interaction in the form of work group communications provides a way for employees to express themselves.
Individuals and work groups need information to make decisions or to do their work. Interpersonal Communication Message
Source: sender’s intended meaning
The message converted to symbolic form
The medium through which the message travels
The receiver’s retranslation of the message
Disturbances that interfere with communications Interpersonal Communication Distortions in Communications Message Encoding
The effect of the skills, attitudes, and knowledge of the sender on the process of encoding the message
The social-cultural system of the sender
The Message
Symbols used to convey the message’s meaning
The content of the message itself
The choice of message format
Noise interfering with the message The Channel
The sender’s choice of the appropriate channel or multiple channels for conveying the message
The effect of skills, attitudes, and knowledge of the receiver on the process of decoding the message
The social-cultural system of the receiver
Feedback Loop
Communication channel distortions affecting the return message from receiver to sender Interpersonal Communication Barriers Defensiveness National
Culture Emotions Information
Overload Interpersonal Communication Language Filtering Interpersonal Communication Methods Face-to-face
Group meetings
Formal presentations
Traditional Mail
Fax machines
Employee publications
Bulletin boards
Audio- and videotapes Hotlines
Computer conferencing
Voice mail
Videoconferences Evaluating Communication Methods Feedback
Complexity capacity
Breadth potential
Encoding ease
Decoding ease Time-space constraint
Interpersonal warmth
Scan ability
Time consumption Organizational Communication Comparison of Communication Methods Interpersonal Communication Nonverbal Communication
Communication that is transmitted without words.
Sounds with specific meanings or warnings
Images that control or encourage behaviors
Situational behaviors that convey meanings
Clothing and physical surroundings that imply status
Body language: gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements that convey meaning.
Verbal intonation: emphasis that a speaker gives to certain words or phrases that conveys meaning. Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication Filtering
The deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver.
Disregarding rational and objective thinking processes and substituting emotional judgments when interpreting messages.
Information Overload
Being confronted with a quantity of information that exceeds an individual’s capacity to process it. Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication (cont’d) Defensiveness
When threatened, reacting in a way that reduces the ability to achieve mutual understanding.
The different meanings of and specialized ways (jargon) in which senders use words can cause receivers to misinterpret their messages.
National Culture
Culture influences the form, formality, openness, patterns and use of information in communications. Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communications Use Feedback
Simplify Language
Listen Actively
Constrain Emotions
Watch Nonverbal Cues Any Question ?? Any Question ??? Communication
[The transfer and understanding of meaning.]
Transfer means the message was received in a form that can be interpreted by the receiver.

Understanding the message is not the same as the receiver agreeing with the message. 1) Interpersonal Communication 2) Organizational Communication IT in Business Organization Communication

Instant Messaging (IM)


Videoconferencing Information Technology in Organizations
Today, the term Information Technology has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology, and the term is more recognizable than ever before. The Information Technology umbrella can be quite large, covering many fields. IT in Business Organization Economic Efficiencies

Storing and Protecting Information

Customer Relationship

Work Remotely Information Technology in Organizations
IT has evolved dramatically over the years and has significantly changed society

 As technology advances, it transforms and improves society.  IT in Business Organization Data Management

Production Technology


Competitive Advantage Conclusion Information technology has changed the way of business

Removed the constraints of time and distance

Made Sharing of Data so easy Information Technology
in Organizations By
Sarmad Sattar Control
Formal and informal communications act to control individuals’ behaviors in organizations. Any Question ??? by
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