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Language & Literacy - By Mara Bell & Masbelis Salah


Mara Bell

on 1 October 2014

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Transcript of Language & Literacy - By Mara Bell & Masbelis Salah

Second Language Acquisition

The stages that learners go through
Language and Literacy
First Language Acquisition
By: Mara Bell & Masbelis Salah
Polyglotism is the ability to master multiple languages.
Ariza, E., Morales-Jones, C., Yahya, N., & Zainuddin, H. (2010). Why TESOL: Theories and issues
in teaching English as a second language for K-12 teachers (4th ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

ASCD. (2014, January 1). Retrieved September 25, 2014.

BBC. (2010). Language Acquisition 1. Retrieved September 20, 2014.

Bright Hub Education. (2012). Retrieved September 25, 2014.

EHow. Theories for Teaching Young ELL Students. (1969). Retrieved September 29, 2014.

EHow. How to Teach ESL Grammar to Elementary Students. (2011). Retrieved September 29, 2014.

Haynes, J. (2014). EverythingESL: The K-12 ESL Resource from Judie Haynes. Retrieved September
25, 2014.

Teaching the ESL Learner. (2013). Retrieved September 29, 2014.

THNKR. (2013). Teen Speaks Over 20 Languages. Retrieved September 20, 2014.

Schütz, R. (2014). Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition (Assimilação Natural
- o Construtivismo no Ensino de Línguas). Retrieved September 25, 2014.
(THNKR, 2013)
(BBC, 2010)
Acquisition of Phonology, Morphology, Syntax & Semantics
Why do we talk?

"It's such a sophisticated skill and yet children learn it so easily with minimal effort"
Phonemes the most simple basic units of sound

Smallest grammatical units of language

Sentences and their structure

Meaning and the correlation signifies and what they stand for
Cooing, Crying and Babbling
Early signs of language-like behaviors
Practice for speech
Socially rewarding
"The limits of my language are the limits of my world.” - Ludwig Wittgenstein
Children do not just simple imitate language. They are not tape recorders. Children learn grammar and rules even if they are not directly given to them. Children acquire the grammar that provides the foundation for them to have the ability to not only speak, but to also interpret verbal messages.
There is nothing more important than language acquisition for a child's physical, social, and cognitive development.
Syllable Structure
Inflection/grammatical morphemes
Derivational morphemes
Length of utterance
Bare infinitives (difficulties)
Order of mention (difficulties)


Masbelis Salah
First Language Acquisition: Slides 3-5
Hyper-Polyglotism: Slide 14
Credits & Reference: Slide 15-16

Mara Bell
Second Language Acquisition: Slides 6-10
Tips for Young ELL's: Slides 11-13

4th Stage
Vocabulary: 6000 words
3-5 years
3rd Stage
Vocabulary: 3000 words
1-3 years
2nd Stage
Vocabulary: 1000 words
6 months-1 year
1st stage
Vocabulary: 500 words
3-6 months
(Ariza et al., 2010)
(Ariza et al., 2010)
Tips for Teaching Young ELL Students
Start in Pre-K!

Language and reading are most heavily established from birth through elementary school. Educating students before they enter kindergarten is critical to their development.
Open Communication
with Students & Family
It is very important to make the students as well as their parents feel comfortable, respected and welcome in the classroom. Keep parents involved in their child's education and research the student's social and emotional needs so you are properly prepared.
Classroom Tips
Play Games!
Games that incorporate grammar help keep the young learners motivated and entertained. They encourage them to participate with not much pressure and in a relaxed environment. You can use a pre-made game or even create one yourself designed around your student's specific needs.
Show Animated TV
Shows & Movies
The language and visuals really grab a child's attention. This is an easy way for the student to follow along and in the end they are really able to absorb a significant amount of grammar and vocabulary.
Sing Songs
Singing songs with your students can help reinforce grammar points. Songs use simple language and a repetitive structure that children remember and understand easily.
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