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Respiratory System

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Lina Li

on 23 May 2014

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Transcript of Respiratory System

Main function is to allow oxygen to enter the body, while releasing carbon dioxide, through a process called respiration.
Air enters through the mouth or nose.
Criteria to achieve respiration :
1) Large surface to take in oxygen (for organisms to release
2) Moist respiratory membrane to allow water to diffuse
across membranes
Lung surfaces receive air from the respiratory system, then blood in capillaries take in oxygen while collecting carbon dioxide from cells and releasing it.
Circulatory System :
- Contributes by picking up carbon dioxide, and transporting
oxygen-laden blood throughout the body.
- Aids for respiration in vertebrates.
Digestive System :
- Back of pharynx enters the esophagus, and the respiratory system provides needed
Nervous System :
- Controls breathing rate (If carbon dioxide concentration is too high).
Cardiovascular System :
- Blood is guided through this system.
Lymphatic System :
- Llined with mucous membranes which contain mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue, this
tissue is part of the lymphatic system.
- occurs when your bronchial tubes get swollen
- the mucus that usually moves freely gets stuck.
- to get it out of your lungs, your body starts coughing.
- Also commonly referred as the Flu.
- Caused by a virus.
- Usually occurs during the cold and flu season in the winter months.
- often caused by bacteria that get into the lungs.

Covering your mouth when you sneeze and cough to prevent the spread of germs.
Frequent hand washing, especially after riding a bus or subway.
Good hygiene reduces germs, increases health, and increases resistance to disease.
Dispose of all used tissues properly
Kissing someone on the lips who is illed or sharing their utensils or drinking glass is to be avoided.
- A disease that causes the bronchial tubes to constrict and get narrow.
- It also causes the body to make extra mucus.
- These two problems can make it very hard for air to get in and out of the lungs.
- Usually caused by an allergic reaction to something.
Cystic Fibrosis
- It is a genetic disorder.
- The bodies of people with this disease make mucus that is very sticky. People with this disease have to take extra care of their lungs and protect them from infection.
- is something that we get from the world around us, by breathing poisonous and polluted air or smoking cigarettes.
- the smokes inhaled destroys the alveoli of the body. The smoky air attacks the alveoli in the lungs,
Primary function = Respiration
Seperated by the heart.
Smooth breathing from the lungs is due to friction caused between the pleural membrane.
Each lung contains one main bronchi.
The main function of the trachea is to provide a clear airway for air to enter and exit the lungs.
Connects larynx to the bronchi, which allows air to pass through the neck and into the thorax.
Accommodates for masses of food moving through the esophagus.
Primary Bronchi -> Stems from the trachea, and
branches into right and left.
Secondary Bronchi -> Formed from splitting primary
- Carries air to lobes of lungs.
Within each lobe, secondary bronchi split into Terminal Bronchioles.
- Conduct air to Alveoli.
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases occurs at the alveolar level.
Takes more effort to inflate, than deflate.
Results in an enormous surface area for gas exchange.
Extends from nasal cavity to larynx.
Divided into 3 regions :
1) Nasopharynx
2) Oropharynx
3) Laryngopharynx
2 Downwards passages for food and air :
- Upper = Voicebox/larynx
- Lower = Windpipe/Trachea
Is the "Voicebox" (within Pharynx)
- Contains vocal folds -> Produces sounds of speech
and singing.
Short section of the airway, connecting the laryngopharynx and trachea.
Main function of nasal cavity is to warm, moisturize, and filter air entering the body, before it reaches the lungs.
Is an external opening for the respiratory system (first section of the body’s airway).
Traps bacteria and foreign particles that enter the nose from mucus and cilia.
Seperates lower and upper part of body.
During inhalation, the contraction of the diaphragm causes the chest to expand.
- Allows for more air in the lungs.
Exhalation causes the chest to contract.
Victoria Wu and Lina Li
- They can cause a lot of irritation in your chest. You can get a sore throat from coughing too much.
- Some treatments to cure the symptoms are airway clearance to rid the lungs of mucus, nutrition regimen which may include digestive enzymes and vitamin supplements and transplantation for end-stage patients.

- When these attacks occur, people who suffer from asthma can use an inhaler filled with medicine to make the tubes in the chest widen out again.
- There is no cure for emphysema, but it is possible to slow down the disease and make it easier to live with the symptoms.
- Quitting smoking and staying away from smoky places. By quitting smoking, you can slow down emphysema. Learn how to quit smoking.
- Taking medications, which may include pills, puffers and supplemental oxygen.
- Joining a pulmonary rehabilitation class, a specialized exercise program.
Tuberculosis (TB)
- It is caused by bacteria that attack the lungs. If this infection isn’t stopped, it can destroy lung tissue, and eventually the victim will stop breathing.
- If the immune system can’t stop the TB bacteria from growing, the active TB bacteria multiply and cause active TB disease
- The active bacteria can cause holes to form in the lungs of TB patients.
- The symptoms of infection with active TB bacteria and resulting TB disease are persistent cough, bloody phlegm (mucus), chest pain, weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite and weight, fever, and chills
- A TB medicine called isoniazid (INH). People usually take this medicine for 6 to 12 months. If you take medicine as your doctor or nurse says, it should cure your TB infection.
- The TB medicine kills the TB bacteria and stop the infection from making you sick with active TB disease.
- Lung cancer is the leading cancer killer in the United States.
- The leading causes of lung cancer by far is smoking and long-term exposure to radon gas
- When exposed to radon, the carcinogens found in cigarette smoke, or other airborne toxins, the lungs can begin to develop abnormal cells in the lining of the bronchial tubes.
- These symptoms are include a persistent cough, bloody phlegm, wheezing and shortness of breath, chest pain, and repeated or chronic bronchitis and pneumonia.
Alveoli. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://chickscope.beckman.uiuc.edu/explore/embryology/day15/graphics/alveoli.gif
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Bronchioles. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://img.tfd.com/dorland/thumbs/bronchiole_terminal.jpg
Diaphragm. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://blogs.nejm.org/now/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Dysfunction-of-the-Diaphragm.jpg
Laynx. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://www.cancer.gov/images/cdr/live/CDR716231-750.jpg
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Nose. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Illu01_head_neck.jpg/250px-Illu01_head_neck.jpg
Pharynx. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Illu_pharynx.jpg
Respiratory System. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://www.goldiesroom.org/Multimedia/Bio_Images/13%20Human%20Other/01%20Respiratory%20System.jpg
Trachea. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://withfriendship.com/images/e/21622/Trachea-image.gif
Ventolin Inhaler / Evohaler Inhaler for Asthma. (n.d.). Ventolin Inhaler, Evohaler For Asthma, Buy Online. Retrieved from http://www.asthmasymptoms86.com/ventolin-inhaler.html
Emphysema : Canadian Lung Association. (2013). Emphysema : Canadian Lung Association. Retrieved from http://www.lung.ca/diseases-maladies/a-z/emphysema-emphyseme/index_e.php
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Ms. Tang
SNC2D1 - 14
Tuesday, November 19th, 2013

- Lung tumors are usually detected by chest X-rays or CT scans and may be treated by surgical removal, radiation, and chemotherapy.
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