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Adolf Hitler; From Failed Artist to Fuhrer
Transcript of Adolf Hitler; From Failed Artist to Fuhrer
hit hard. Hyperinflation from 1919-1923 was
immense, as stated by the Westfaliche Allggemeine
Volkzeitung "Our government does little to ensure
the fair distribution of food ..... There is food in the
windows but the workers cannot afford to buy it .....
everyday hundreds of people die of starvation" Phase 1 Germany was looking for a saviour, and he rose above the rest.
His name was.... Adolf Hitler Phase 2 The Treaty's Points:
1. Germany had to accept the Blame for starting the war (Clause 231).
2. Germany had to pay £6,600 million (called Reparations) for the damage done during the war.
3. Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force. She could have a navy of only six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men. In addition, Germany was not allowed to place any troops in the Rhineland, the strip of land, 50 miles wide, next to France.
4. Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe, Germany’s colonies were given to Britain and France.
(Also, Germany was forbidden to join the League of Nations, or unite with Austria.)
Hitler began his political career on September 1919,
when he joined the political party called the 'Nazi Party',
which opposed the Weimar Republic and the Treaty of
Hitler's Story of success Adolf was, without a doubt, one of the main reasons why
the Nazi Party succeeded. He was an outstanding public speaker,
a very clever politician, and was an idealist. He knew what the
German people wanted; the tearing up of the Treaty of Versailles,
the regaining of German land, and most of all, German pride. He
also promised to rid unemployment; a major issue at the time. Hitler became leader of the Nazi Party in 1921, even changing
the symbol to the 'Swastika' The success of the Nazi Party grew rapidly, especially
after he had been jailed for attempting the 'munich putsch'.
Reasons for this were because people who had not heard of
him, most likely in far-away places, found out about him. His
attempt of the munich putsch made headlines for two weeks. Hitler's party used many methods to gain
popularity such as:
- Mass Rallies
- Campaign Posters
- The secret service aka stormtroopers.
- Newspaper highlighting Nazi Party ideas/
Because of the aforementioned topics, Hitler gained power;
from 53 supporters in 1919, 3000 in 1920, 6000 in 1921 and
50000 in 1923.
Munich Putsch in Detail:
The Munich Putsch can be described as the sudden unconstitutional deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to replace the deposed government with another body; either civil or military. This is what Hitler attempted. Believing that the Nazi Party had rallied enough supporters, and that the government were weak, Hitler struck, but was driven back. He was trialled for high treason, and was sent to jail for 5 years. This was the turning point of Hitler's political career. Intermission; A recap of the information gathered so far. Phase 3 Reasons for Hyperinflation:
- The occupation of the Ruhr in 1921 angered many Germans. The German government answered with "passive resistance," which meant that coal miners and railway workers refused to obey any instructions by the occupation forces. Production and transportation came to a standstill, but the financial consequences contributed to German hyperinflation and completely ruined public finances in Germany Adolf Hitler lost popularity after the Putsch, losing 18 seats in
parliament, resulting in his remaining 14 seats. But Bounced Back Movement Towards Power, Hitler's Rise Phase 4 The Nazi Party began building a mass movement. From 27,000 members in 1925, the Party grew to 108,000 in 1929. After Adolf Hitler's release from prison in December 1924, he re-organised the Nazi Party.The new Nazi Party was no longer a paramilitary organization, and disavowed any intention of taking power by force. Nuremberg remained a party stronghold, and the first Nuremberg Rally was held there in 1927. These rallies soon became massive displays of Nazi paramilitary power, and attracted many recruits. The Nazis' strongest appeal was to the lower middle-class – farmers, public servants, teachers, small businessmen – who had suffered most from the inflation of the 1920s and who feared Bolshevism more than anything else. The small business class were receptive to Hitler's anti-Semitism, since they blamed Jewish big business for their economic problems. By 1929 the party had 130,000 members Because of the Treaty, Germans were angered and
became irrational, resulting in many problems such
as hyper-inflation and anti-semists. Although Nazi party popularity fell after the
failed Putsch, it eventually recovered. In May 1928, the Nazi party did poorly in the Reichstag elections, winning only 2.6% of the total vote. The Party shifted its strategy to rural and small town areas and fueled antisemitism by calling for expropriation of Jewish agricultural property and by condemning large Jewish department stores. As this graph indicates, Nazi's had under 1 million votes, not enough to win the election. But the Nazi's finally caught a break. Phase 5 The Global Depression; Beginning of an end The Great Depression began in 1929 and wrought worldwide economic, social, and psychological consequences. The Weimar democracy proved unable to cope with national despair as unemployment doubled from three million to six million, or one in three, by 1932. The existing "Great Coalition" government, a combination of left-wing and conservative parties, collapsed while arguing about the rising cost of unemployment benefits. Reich president Paul von Hindenburg's advisers persuaded him to invoke the constitution's emergency presidential powers. These powers allowed the president to restore law and order in a crisis. Adolf Hitler, as mentioned before, was an incredibly smart politician. As unemployment rose, so did support for Hitler's party, because he gave the people what they wanted; jobs, which appeared to be, one of the most monumental tasks at the time. As a result of this success, the Nazi Party's
popularity grew, from 12 seats in 1928 to 107
seats in 1930. But was still not enough for the Nazi party. As a result of this, the German democratic system fell apart. Yet another reason for the eventual demise of the Weimar Republic. The final steps to success Final Phase In 1932, the elections were held again. For the first time, the Nazi Party had won, receiving 37.3% of the votes. Hitler stepped up and offered himself as Chancellor Hindenburg's term as president was ending in the spring of 1932. At age 84, he was reluctant to run again, but knew that if he didn't, Hitler would win. Hindenburg won the election, but Hitler received 37% of the vote.
Hindenburg despised Hitler. But he thought
of a plan:
- Appoint Hitler as Chancellor. (1933)
- Use his success to the governments advantage. Hitler, as the new chancellor, invoked the Enabling Act,
giving him the power to make new laws without the
consulting the Reichstag for at least 4 years. The law was
passed because he dominated the Reichstag in seats. Now that Hitler was a Dictator, Germany's democracy ceased to exist. He set off to eliminate the rest of his opposition, "bringing them into line". (Source Germany; Hope, Terror and Revival. A. Kitson 2005.) Hitler had wiped out most of his opposition, the only threats were in the Nazi Party themselves, the SA. The Night of Long Knives:
- SA leaders were arrested and murdered over several weeks on 1934.
A few weeks after The Night of Long Knives, President Hindenburg passed away. Hitler was now Fuhrer and Chancellor of Germany; unopposed by anyone. Marinus van der Lubbe, statement at his trial (23rd November, 1933)
I can only repeat that I set fire to the Reichstag all by myself. There is nothing complicated about this fire. It has quite a simple explanation. What was made of it may be complicated, but the fire itself was very simple. What sealed Hitlers victory was the Reichstag Fire, which occured before the next election. Marinus van der Lubbe was convicted of the crime, and the Nazi's took advantage of that, accusing the communists for conspiring. Because of this Hitler gained
two-thirds of the Reichstag
votes. Heil Fuhrer Supreme Dictator of Germany
The Dawes Plan was an attempt following World War I for the Triple Entente to collect war reparations debt from Germany. When after five years the plan proved to be unsuccessful, the Young Plan was adopted in 1929 to replace it.