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18th Century in Vienna

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by

Sarah Badawi

on 2 November 2014

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Transcript of 18th Century in Vienna

18th Century in Vienna, Austria
by: Sarah Badawi
The Gypsies
Referred to as Roma, are dark-skinned cultural group known for their itinerant lifestyle in Eastern Europe.
when the Hapsburg took over. The Hapsburg allowed the gypsies to stay and roam the land.
Gypsy music played on the streets in Vienna and Budapest.
Europeans saw them as fun-loving spirits. Europeans also viewed the Roma as troublemakers and thieves, who refused to integrate into white society.
They originated from India and migrated to Eastern Europe as far back as the 14th century.
Originated from India
The Music of the Roma
Gypsy bands have been common in central Europe since the mid eighteenth century
Gypsy violinists tend to be highly skilled
The violin is often played by the Hungarian gypsies
The vertical flute, a favorite Oriental instrument used by the gypsies
They roamed from place to place, made campfires and danced and sang around them.
They played music on the streets in Vienna
The surfs in Hungary
Although not technically a slave ,a serf was bound to a lord for life
He could own no property and needed the lord's permission to marry. Under no circumstance could a serf leave the land without the lord's permission unless he chose to run away
Serfs were often required not only to work on the lord's fields, but also his mines, forests and roads
The social class of the peasantry was often broken down into smaller categories:1.freemen, whose tenure within the manor was freehold 2.villeins
Prince Nicholas
Franz Joseph Hayden
He participated in the development of other forms of 18th-century instrumental music, in addition to composing prolifically in the fields of sacred music, opera, and song
he developed in the quartet and symphony a fully mature classical tonal idiom, characterized externally by the four-movement structure (allegro, slow movement, minuet and trio, and finale)
Haydn was born in Rahrau, Lower Austria, on March 31, 1732. At the age of 8 he became a choirboy at the Cathedral of St. Stephan's in Vienna, remaining there until his dismissal in 1749.
Haydn not only studied singing but also took organ, harpsichord and violin lessons.
Haydn not only studied singing but also took organ, harpsichord and violin lessons.
Musicians during the 18th Century in Vienna

The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert
The First Viennese School is a name mostly used to refer to three composers of the Classical period in late-18th-century Vienna: W. A. Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven.
Whereas Haydn spent much of his working life as a court composer, Mozart wanted public success in the concert life of cities. This meant opera, and it meant performing as a virtuoso
The Empress: Maria Theresa

Nikolaus Esterházy was the son of Prince Joseph (1688–1721), and the younger brother of Prince Paul Anton (1711–1762). He took the title of Prince on his brother's death
a Hungarian prince, a member of the famous Esterhazy family
During the period before his brother Paul Anton's death, Nikolaus held the title of Count. He generally lived apart from his brother, favoring a hunting lodge near the Neusiedlersee in Hungary
he played the cello, the viola da gamba, and baryton
She started her 40-year reign when her father, Emperor Charles VI, died in October 1740
Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, had sixteen children, including Queen Marie Antoinette of France, Queen Maria Carolina of Naples, Duchess Maria Amalia of Parma and two Holy Roman Emperors, Joseph II and Leopold II
only female ruler of the Hapsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg
She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma
How each Musician learned music
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart received musical education from his father
At the age of 8 Joseph Haydn was sent to Vienna as a choirboy at St. Stephan's Cathedral
developed a dedication to music and studied piano, organ, violin and singing
Johann Strauss Jr. Although his father, a famous musician himself, forbid him a musical career, he rather cared for violin lessons, than his schoolwork.
what instruments are used
Fortepiano designates the early version of the piano, from its invention by the Italian instrument maker Bartolomeo Cristofori around 1700 up to the early 19th century
It was the instrument for which Haydn, Mozart, and the early Beethoven wrote their piano music.
the violin was used a lot in Vienna
the preferred stringed keyboard instrument was usually the harpsichord, but it was gradually supplanted by the piano
Later on: 19th century
What happened to the gypsies?
From the 19th to the 20 century, the gypsies continued to roam the Eastern European countryside. Then Hitler and World War II came
Hitler had a great hatred for the gypsies
The gypsies were rounded up and put into designated gypsy concentration camps
The Nazis classified them into these three groups: gypsies, partial gypsies and wanderers, or nomads
the gypsies wore black patches, green triangles and the letter Z.
Gypsies love music
Serfs would work all day
Prince Nicholas
Joseph Haydn
Mozart
Empress Maria Theresa
Studied many instruments
Fortepiano
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