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Transcript of ETHNOGRAPHY
e.g. Studying the Indian culture -> living in India for a period of time You need to PREPARE Some preparation points ANTHROPOLOGICAL ETHNOGRAPHY Anthropological ethnography, as the name suggests, is usually performed by practitioners who have been trained in anthropology. They explore the whole product experience -- how brands fit in and relate to the consumer’s life. What is the cultural context – the values and rituals that touch on the product or service category? What does the brand mean to consumers? What place does the product have in the kitchen, the bathroom, the home office or the car? What is the social significance that consumers attach to products or services? What hidden clues are conveyed?
Moreover, anthropological ethnography is sometimes used to find or describe a niche market – people with special forms of behavior or characteristics in common. For example, people who work at night. How does their schedule affect the rest of their lives? In what ways are their day-to-day lives different from people who work nine to five? What are their special product or service needs?
Some ethnographers like to use classic projective techniques to explore the unexpressed emotional motivations of their respondents. Among them are archetypes, first developed by the psychologist Carl Jung. Others use Tarot cards, and some have developed their own projective devices. Respondents tend to identify with a specific image or character in a particular context, which can give ethnographers an insight into their true feelings that may have been previously unavailable.On site, others see themselves as part of the woodwork. They resist intrusion into the lives of their respondents, and that includes interviewing. They prefer to tag along, watching and listening, hardly even making eye contact. FROM
http://www.greenbook.org/Content/housecalls/ETHNOGRAPHYGUIDELINES.pdf . Ethnography is not a substitute for quantitative research. It takes place among a limited number of respondents.. . Packing a proposal with multiple objectives. Resist issue greed. The fewer the objectives, the more focused and in depth the findings will be.. Ethnography is not suited to scope a wide market. Findings often suggest strategic and tactical direction, but the findings may or may not be representative of a broad market category. It would be wise to verify the results with an inexpensive quantitative test. * A refined question/concise and clear objective- What do you want to find out?
* A good amount of knowledge on the context and culture of your study
* Interview guide- A 'blueprint' of your interview questions/what you want to find out to answer the key objective/question
* Costs and time- Know how long you need ot stay and how much it will cost for the period of your fieldwork
* Scheduling- How long are you going to focus in each area of your fieldwork? Plan carefully Ethical Issues The ethical issues of ethnography are not applicable as a whole. There is a degree in debate on the ethics of ethnography however some points can be suggested: - Confidentiality of the interviewees
- Permission to be allowed into the chosen study
- Answers can vary and ethnography results do not provide a generalize and definite examination of the study group
- You need to be able to constantly observe and screen interviewees; body language and tone of voice plays crucial parts in determining the direction of answers
-Objective mind- remember you are immersing and joining the chosen culture of the study. Advantages VS Disadvantages -Time consuming
-Can be expensive
-Relies on observation; bias and own interpretations form observer
-Safety: The researcher is being placed in a foreign environment and may not know the presence of danger as well. -Provide in-depth analysis of behavior and study
-Observation rather than predetermined and written tests
-Contrast and comparison with own personal knowledge
-Holistic as researcher stays with group over a period time, allowing observations of direct and unwritten facts