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Zuma Jalilova

on 13 January 2015

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photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
How is the 'English School' theory different from Realist theories?
The English school versus Realism
2.The English School versus Realism
3.Common assumptions of realism in compare with the theory of The English School
5.International System/Society
6.From power to order
The state was made for man,not man for state.
-Albert Einstein

Theory itself:
Contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking
Not the same as hypothesis
Provides an explanatory framework for some observation
Body of knowledge
Very often contrasted to practice
The English School
Not an american Theory
Guided by moral questions about the adequacy of the current inter-state order
The act of mutual recognition
Sovereign states are the primary members of international society but not strictly the only members
Cooperation not
is fundamental in the theory of The English school
1.The international system is anarchic
There is no actor above states capable of regulating their interactions
The international system exists in a state of constant antagonism(competition)
3.Most important objectives power and security
4.Groups attain as many resources as possible
5.The primary concern of all states is survival
States build up military to survive,which may lead to a security dilemma
6.The dominance of material interests over legal and moral norms in determining the actions of political units
Who is sovereign over the sovereign?
The answer is:
No one
Violations of Sovereignty
Life in international relations is closer to the mafia world
World police is either non-existent or weak(the United Nations)
The lack of political authority
In IR,no one is sovereign over the sovereign
Anarchy is a world "self-help"
Have a problem?Either go solve it on your own or convince your friend to help you
Anarchy is not
IR's challenge

If anything can happen,how do we predict or explain outcomes?
Fun fact:most states most of the time are not fighting each other
Anarchy permits chaos ..or order..or anything in between

Anarchy is a trivial explanation(explains anything and nothing)
We need more precise predictions and explanations
The International System is not a state of war despite the fact that each state has a monopoly of control of the instruments within its territory
Because of a common interest in placing restraints on the use of force,states have developed the art of accommodation and compromise which makes an international society possible
Members of the English School have long argued that the great powers can be "great responsibles" which do not place their own interests before the task of strengthening international order
Bull argued that 'realists focus on the struggle for power and security,while their liberal or utopian opponents focus on the possibility of a world community'
Thanks for your attention!
From power to order
High level of order and justice
"Diplomatic Culture"
Order among all mankind
In an age where community involvement and partnerships with civil society are increasingly being recognized as indispensable, there is clearly a growing potential for cooperative development and renewal worldwide.
-- Kofi Annan

1.Ananie Adina Marina, International Relations, Second Year; "The English School between Realism and Idealism", p. 14-20
2.Andrew Linklater, Theories of International Relations (Third Edition)(2005); "The English School" p.84-108
3.Barry Buzan "The English School: An Underexploited Resource in IR", Review of International Studies 27:3, (2001) p. 471-88
4.Dugin A.G. Lecture 4, The English School and Neomarxism http://www.savetubevideo.com/?v=ZE2oKq_bS1o
Wikipedia: English school of international relations theory
5.Леонид Проценко, Современные теории международных отношений как условие формирования населения новой картины мира ,p.40-52
6.Миронов В.В. ,История(2011)”Международный порядок” Хэдли Булла и Английская школа международных отношений,
7.Tim Dunne, International Relations Theory; "The English School" p.133-49
8.William Spaniel, International Relations "Anarchy"

International System/Society
Bull introduced distinction between International System and International Society:
system of states
(or international system) is formed when 2 or more states have sufficient contact between them and have sufficient impact on one another's decisions to cause them behave at least in some measure-as parts of whole.
society of states
,on the other hand,comes into being"when a group of states conscious of certain common interests and common values,form a societyin the sense that they conceive themselves to be bound by a common set of rules in their relations with one another and share in the working of common institutions
analyzed elements of society and civility
considered the prospects for global justice
some have made the moral case for creating a more just world order
protection of human rights
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