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Print-friendly Lecture 2 MAN 20050

Ways of Seeing (2012-13)

Laura Mitchell

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of Print-friendly Lecture 2 MAN 20050

MAN 20050 Lecture 2 Ways of Seeing what do you think this lecture will be about? Theory as a lens Ontology Paradigms as a way of seeing All the later papers & theories we will discuss can be understood from different perspectives or paradigms. Try to see if you can identify these perspectives as we go through the course. Have you identified your own, comfortable paradigm? It is also important to appreciate the validity of perspectives not your own. What did we think last week about work? For tutorials: just the facts! it's common sense! practitioners know best... To think about work in this way work is approached as a social phenomenon. The module focuses on three central problems of organisation as highlighted by sociology. 1. order 2. power 3. Interpretation duck rabbit what is the nature of reality? Epistemology what can we know about reality? Realist Idealist (Nominalist) objective subjective What ontological and epistemological standpoint, or paradigm, applies to these? Burrell, Gibson & Morgan, Gareth, (1992) Sociological paradigms and organisational analysis: elements of the sociology of corporate life. pp.1-20, Surrey,: Ashgate.
Kim, E. C. (2009). “‘Mama’s Family’: Fictive kinship and undocumented immigrant restaurant workers”, Ethnography, 10(4), 497-513 read &prepare different theories reveal different perspectives each paradigm illuminates certain issues and obscures others Positivist Social constructivist independent observations objective measurement naive realism e.g. survey methods, behaviourism, traditional physics subjectively context dependent interpretation and meaning no 'real' or external answer RADICAL CHANGE REGULATION SUBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE RADICAL
STRUCTURALIST INTERPRETIVE FUNCTIONAL Common Paradigms in Social Theory (Burrell & Morgan 1979) Functionalism realist ontology, objective epistemology, focuses on order & structure interested in how organisations can be more efficient & effective mainstream organisational theory realist ontology, subjective epistemology, focuses on order and agency interested in understanding the organisation from the point of view of its members may include interactionism, some process organisation theory, mild social constructivism Interpretivism Radical Structuralist realist ontology, subjective epistemology, focuses on conflict and structure interested in the analysis of how organisations create exploitation and alienation through structure. interested in promoting social change includes Marxism (and Labour Process Theory), some Critical Theory, some Feminist Theory Radical Humanist realist ontology, subjective epistemology, focuses on conflict and agency interested in analysis of how organisations create exploitation and alienation through ideology
interested in the domination of the subject rather than theory building, focuses upon individual emancipation; underdeveloped, superseded by postmodernism... Post- modernism structuralism don't fit in the table very well! nominalist ontology, subjective epistemology believe we see & know the world only through language (discourse) Discourse creates reality This is another kind of radical perspective:
includes Foucault, post structuralism, Critical Discourse Analysis, some kinds of feminism later addition to social theory has broad implications common sense assumptions cannot be taken for granted All knowledge is socially constructed relativity: dangerous or liberating? to recap:
Why are paradigms important to recognise?
What are the 4 key elements in identifying a paradigm?
What is the approach of a nominalist ontology? questions for further thinking:
how do these different paradigms think about:
interpretation? focus on individual agency focus on structures MAN 20050 Social Theory at Work Dr Laura Mitchell Questions to help you prepare are on the KLE THERE WILL BE A TEST! from the Greek
and 'that which exists' 'study of, theory' realist! But what is happening? Is society always heading for disaster and chaos? Or is it always trying to settle down into a pattern? The nature of society The nature of human beings Who is in charge here? Are we agents with free will to shape the world and interact with it (voluntarism)? Or are we only cogs in the giant structures that make up the world of ideas and of matter (determinism)? Structure vs Agency Order vs Conflict What can we know about this? Objectively, is it a pipe? Subjectively, do we identify it as a pipe because of our perceptions of the world? 1929 painting by Magritte An epistemological problem... realist or idealist? objective or subjective? What is social science? What makes up social theory? Should we accept that people understand their own activities best? Two opposing paradigms: We can understand paradigms as different 'groups' of theories that tend to 'see' the same way As well as Ontology & Epistemology, social scientists hold other views on: but considers the subject to lack agency, and instead be 'caught' in discourses This is important because...
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