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Research-Based Instructional Strategies

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Corbin Franklin

on 20 July 2016

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Transcript of Research-Based Instructional Strategies

Rank the best practices from 1-9 with 1 having the greatest impact on student achievement.

Predict the percentile gain that each best practice has on student achievement.
Research-Based Instructional Strategies
Corbin R. Franklin & Stephanie S. Withers
ADMS 627
Dr. W. Newcomb
John Hattie's Effect Size
Marzano's Best Practices
Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement (Marzano, Pickering, Pollock, 2001)
This book presents instructional strategies the authors have "extracted from the research base on effective instruction" (p. 3). The results of this research revealed the top nine strategies that have a strong effect on student achievement.
1. Identifying Similarities and Differences:
Researchers have found that identifying similarities and differences are basic mental operations that might be considered the "core" of all learning (Marzano, p. 14).
Give One Get One (Mulligan, Dan. Making a Difference: High Quality Instructional Strategies. www.flexiblecreativity.com. October 2012)
Venn Diagrams
Metaphors and Analogies
Give One Get One:
1. Compare an administrator and an astronaut.
2. Write one thing that is similar and one thing that is different.
3. Circulate around the room. Share your ideas with someone and collect an idea from him/her.
4. Go to a different person and repeat the process. Give an idea and get an idea.
5. You may not collect more than one idea from any one person.
6. If you find a person who has the same idea that you have, come up with one new idea together.
2. Summarizing and Note Taking
Two of the most useful academic skills students can have are summarizing and note taking which can be explicitly taught (Marzano, p. 29).
Reciprocal Teaching
Summary Frames (pp. 34 - 42) - Teacher provides guiding questions to direct students in summarizing different types of text.
3. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
3. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
This instructional strategy deals with attitudes and beliefs rather than dealing directly with enhancing or engaging the academic skills of students (Marzano, pp. 49-50).
Effort and Achievement Rubrics - Students keep track of their effort and its relationship to achievement.
Effective Praise - Specifically related to performance
3. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
This instructional strategy addresses attitudes and beliefs rather than dealing directly with increasing student achievement (Marzano, pp. 49 -56).
Effort and Achievement Rubrics - Students keep track of their effort and its relationship to achievement.
Effective Praise - Specifically related to the accomplishment.
5. Nonlinguistic Representations
Marzano's research shows that a key to developing new knowledge is using both linguistic and nonlinguistic representations (pp. 73 - 74).
Graphic Representations
Creating Physical Models
Kinesthetic Activities
4. Homework and Practice
Marzano's Research Results for Graded Homework (p. 64)

Use of HW Percentile Gain
HW with teachers' comments as feedback 30
Graded HW 28
Assigned HW not graded and without comments 11
1 Micro teaching 0.88
2 Teacher clarity 0.75
3 Teacher-student relationships 0.72
4 Professional development 0.62
5 Not labeling students 0.61
6 Quality of Teaching 0.44
7 Expectations 0.43
8 Teacher Effects 0.32

(Hattie, 2009, p.109)
Rank of Influences
from the Teacher
Rank of Contributions
from Teaching Approaches
1 Providing formative evaluation 0.90
2 Comprehensive interventions for learning
disabled students 0.77
3 Reciprocal teaching 0.74
4 Feedback 0.73
5 Spaced vs. massed practice 0.71
6 Meta-cognitive strategies 0.69
7 Problem-solving teaching 0.0.61
8 Variety of teacher strategies 0.60
(Hattie, 2009, p.162)
1. Formative Assessment
6. Quality Teaching

"Quality teachers, as rated by students, as those who challenge, who have high expectations, who encourage the study of their subject, and who value surface and deep aspects of their subjects." (Hattie, 2009, p. 116)
Quality teachers:
tested hypotheses about the effects of their teaching
had a sense of control
had a passion for teaching and learning
strived for joyful learning
had deep understanding of their subject & continued to develop their expertise
were adept at improvisation
had a problem solving disposition to teaching
had a positive classroom climate that fostered learning
had respect for their students
used positive energy & humor
(Hattie, 2009; Tomlinson, 1999)

3. Positive Teacher-Student Relationships
Ranking of teacher-student relationship variables:
Encouragement of higher order thinking
Adapting to differences
Learner-centered beliefs
(Hattie, 2009, p. 119)

Burke, K. (2006). From standards to rubrics in 6 steps: Tools for assessing student learning, K - 8. California: Corwin Press.

Hattie, J.C. (2009). Visible learning, a synthesis of over 800 meta-analysis relating to achievement. New York: Routledge.

Marzano, R.J., Pickering, D.J., and Pollock, J.E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. New Jersey: Pearson.

Mulligan, D. (2012). Making a difference: High quality instructional strategies. www.flexiblecreativity.com.

Tomlinson, C.A. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria: ASCD.
List 3 attributes of quality teachers.

Then, trade your list with someone nearby.

What are ways you use formative assessment in your classroom?
6. Cooperative Learning
5 Defining Elements of Cooperative Learning (Marzano, p. 85 - 86)
1. Positive interdependence
2. Face-to-face promotive interaction
3. Individual and group accountability
4. Interpersonal and small group skills
5. Group processing
7. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
Teachers who "begin with the end in mind" keep the learning goals in focus. They plan their lessons to achieve the goals and to help students improve their performance. Teachers need to think of a rubric as an advanced organizer for students - "a way of getting feedback before they even begin their project or task" (Burke, 2006, p. 126).
8. Generating and Testing Hypotheses
The cognitive skill of generating and testing hypotheses is a great instructional strategy for all subjects and is tool for students to apply what they have previously learned to develop new knowledge (Marzano, p. 126).
9. Cues, Questions, and Advnace Organizers (Marzano, pp. 113 - 114)
Focus on what is important
"Higher level" questions vs. "lower level" questions
Wait time
Can be asked before a learning experience.
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