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Cognitive Development in Adolescence: Various Perspectives

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Kathleen O'Connor

on 18 September 2014

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Transcript of Cognitive Development in Adolescence: Various Perspectives

Cognitive Development
in Adolescence

Finish Reviewing
Brain Development

Changes Occurring Throughout Adolescence:
Neurogenesis
Neural Pruning
Overall Development of the Cerebral Cortext
Thickening of the Corpus Callosum
Exuberant Synapses
7-10 percent of all brain cells are lost - more excitatory than inhibitory connections are lost. Leads to more efficient pathways and a greater ability to focus attention.
The power to see and understand more, to hold more in your mind, so that you can capture many aspects of an idea at once
Neural Development results in:
Improved thinking, reasoning and problems solving
Development of the cerebellum
Coordinates movement and thinking
Increase in number and speed of connections between right and left hemispheres, allowing for more creativity and problem solving.
Continuing Myelination
Increased processing speed

7) How much sleep does Dr. Mary Carskadon say that teenagers need every night? According to her, what are the possible results of this sleep deficit?
What environmental and biological factors influence teens' decision about sleep?
Biological:
depression
melatonin
Environmental:
family
ethnicity
SES
culture

8) What does Prof. Smith’s study demonstrate about teens and sleep and learning? What does he suggest is happening during REM sleep?
9) Why have scientists been able to learn so much about brain development in recent years? Do you think they will continue to learn more about how brain development is associated with behavior? Why or why not?
10) After learning about the connection between sleep and learning, do you think you will begin to get more sleep during your time at college? Why or why not? What factors are influencing your thoughts, emotions and behavior on this matter?
What factors do you think influence your decisions about your diet?

The information in your book?
Nisbett and Borgida (1975)
Solutions?
Decision Making:
A form of cognition
Heuristics: algorithms, rules, tendencies, or strategies
How does thinking about our food decisions affect our decisions, and how does that then affect our thinking?
Metacognition
- the ability to think about your thinking
Executive Function
- the ability to monitor and regulate your cognitive processes (i.e. focusing your attention, controlling your emotions, regulating your arousal level)
How Do We Think Brain Development Influences Cognitive Development?

How Do We Understand Cognitive Development?


7) How much sleep does Dr. Mary Carskadon say that teenagers need every night? According to her, what are the possible results of this sleep deficit?
What environmental and biological factors influence teens' decision about sleep?
Biological:
depression
melatonin
Environmental:
family
ethnicity
SES
culture

8) What does Prof. Smith’s study demonstrate about teens and sleep and learning? What does he suggest is happening during REM sleep?
9) Why have scientists been able to learn so much about brain development in recent years? Do you think they will continue to learn more about how brain development is associated with behavior? Why or why not?
10) After learning about the connection between sleep and learning, do you think you will begin to get more sleep during your time at college? Why or why not? What factors are influencing your thoughts, emotions and behavior on this matter?
What factors do you think influence your decisions about your diet?

The information in your book?
Nisbett and Borgida (1975)
Solutions?
Decision Making:
A form of cognition
Heuristics: algorithms, rules, tendencies, or strategies
How does thinking about our food decisions affect our decisions, and how does that then affect our thinking?
Metacognition
- the ability to think about your thinking
Executive Function
- the ability to monitor and regulate your cognitive processes (i.e. focusing your attention, controlling your emotions, regulating your arousal level)
Four Frameworks for Thinking About Cognitive Development
Classic Model - Piaget
Current Model - Information Processessing
Epistemological Approach
Psychometrics
Piaget: a stage model
Sensory Motor Stage
birth to age 2
thinking is acting
Preoperational Stage
age 2-7
characterized by centering
transductive reasoning - particular to particular
syncretism
animism
Concrete Operational Stage
age 7-12
Characterized by the understanding that objects can have multiple characteristics, and can be categorized in different ways.
-they can understand
hierarchical classifications
and
class inclusion relationships
-they can easily seriate and therefore make transitive inferences
These abilities allow children to perform various mental operations, including:
Reversibility
Identity
Associativity
Combinativity
Formal Operations Stage
substage IIIA age 11 or 12
substage IIIB age 14 or 15
Five Characteristics of Formal Operations
introspection
abstract thinking
combinatorial
logical reasoning (inductive and deductive)
hypothetical reasoning
These abilities enable
hypothetico-deductive reasoning
After 100 years of testing these theories, how do we understand them today?
Although there are typical periods of explosive development (for example around age 11), movement through the stages seems to be more gradual and context dependent than Piaget asserted.
Young children are occasionally capable of applying propositional logic. Most adults do not consistently do so.
Riegel (1973) and Basseches (1980) proposed a stage of thinking beyond formal operations:
Dialectic Reasoning
Current, research-based, understanding of formal operations:
metacognition improves (Moshman, 1994)
hypothetical reasoning improves (Morris & Sloutsky, 2002)
modest increase in tendency to use prepositional logic (Ward and Overton 1990)
exhaustive and combinatorial reasoning improves (Dixon and Moore, 1996)
speed and quality of deductive reasoning improves (Folz, Overton & Ricco, 1995)
Jean Piaget 1896-1980
For Piaget, the process of thinking was called adaption, and it consisted of
assimilation
and
accomodation.
Normally, the mind assimilates new information into it's existing cognitive structures, or schemas. A developing mind will eventually encounter too many novel ideas that do not fit into existing schemas. The mind will then accommodate mental structures to fit the data. This process results in a new stage of thinking.
Piaget's Five Characteristics of Formal Operations:
introspection
abstract thinking
combinatory thinking
logical thinking
hypothetical thinking
Object Permanence
Information Processing
=
Different from Piaget in four ways:
- micro-level analysis
- development is gradual and continuous
- knowledge and skills are domain specific
- adolescent development is characterized by
executive control
rather than abstract reasoning.
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
Selection
Interpretation
Memory
Inference
Thinking
Reasoning
sensory storage
short-term storage
long-term storage
-a fraction of a second
-auditory - echoic
-visual - iconic
-no change in adolescence
limited capacity
increases in adolescence
-retrieval either via
recall
or
recognition
-improves throughout
adolescence
rehearsal
some information
is forgotten
some
information
is forgotten
some information
is forgotten
analogy
deductions
inductions
Adolescents can use negation and elimination strategies, rather than affirmation and confirmation strategies, but they are more prone to self-serving biases than adults.
Executive Control and Problem Solving
Epistemology - Thinking about knowledge.

What is it that is developing?
Maybe what develops is an
understanding of what develops!
Boys and Chandler (1992)
Level I

Naive Realists
Level II

Defensive Realists
Level III

Either Dogmatists or Skeptics
Level IV

Post Skeptical Rationalism
Psychometrics: measuring knowledge and intelligence.
But what is intelligence?
Howard Gardner (1998)
seven types of intelligence
1) Linguistic
2) Logical-Mathematical
3) Spatial
4) Musical
5) Kinesthetic
6) Interpersonal
7) Intrapersonal
8) Naturalistic
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg (1997)
Analytic,

Creative,

Practical
Full transcript