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Grammar Unit 2: Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions,

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Stephanie Kaplan

on 21 November 2013

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Transcript of Grammar Unit 2: Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions,

Grammar Unit 2
: Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections

Verbs
Action Verbs
Helping Verbs
Sometimes a verb that is in a sentence is made up of just one word. Often, however, a verb will be made up of several words. This type of verb is called a verb phrase. A verb phrase will have one, two, or three helping verbs before the key part of the verb.
Adverbs
Adverbs can modify three different parts of speech.
Every complete sentence has at least one verb. Verbs tell at what time something happens- in the present, in the past, or in the future. Two main types of verbs are action verbs and linking verbs. These verbs can also be used with helping verbs.
Verbs such as walk, chew, fly, learn, open, do, and fix all show some kind of action.
An action verb tells what action someone or something is performing.
Examples:
Father
broiled
our hamburgers.
The caterpillars
devoured
all the oak leaves.
Some actions are easy to see and some are not.
Examples
The pitcher throws a fast ball.
I believe in justice.
visible
mental
Label if the action is visible (v) or mental (m)
Linking Verbs
Some verbs do not show action. Instead, they link two parts of a sentence.
A linking verb connects a noun or pronoun at or near the beginning of a sentence with a word at or near the end.
Some of the most widely used verbs are linking verbs. The word after a linking verb usually identifies or describes a word in front of the word.
Uncle Steve
is
a chef.
Lucy seems unhappy.
The most common linking verb is be. This verb has many forms.
see your notes

Helping verbs are added before another verb to make a verb phrase.
see notes
These additional helping verbs can be combined with different key verbs to form a variety of verb phrases.
Helping Verbs in Sentences
Words in a verb phrase can sometimes be separated by other words. Very often words such as not, certainly, and seldom come between a helping verb and the key part of the verb. In questions, verbs of two or more words are frequently separated.
Examples
They must have been taken by taxi to the airport.
Marie has certainly not contacted us.
He had carefully kept all the records.
Can they really build their own home?
Whiteboard Check
People who live in glass houses should buy squeegees.
Podgy hogs should never jog in hot weather.
Whiteboard Check
Bland's dog's name is Dog.
Kit, please change the cat litter.
L
A
Other Linking Verbs
Be
is the most commonly used linking verb, but there are some other important linking verbs you should know
appear
become
feel
grow
look
remain
seem
smell
stay
sound
taste
turn
* see notes
Many of the 12 verbs in the chart can be used as either action verbs or linking verbs.
On your notes label whether each verb is being used as a linking (L) or action (A).
To test whether a verb is linking or action, substitute
am
or
are
for the verb. If the new verb links a word before it to a word after it and the sentence still makes sense, then the original verb is a linking verb.
An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
Adverbs that Modify Verbs
An adverb that modifies a verb will answer one of these four questions:
Where? When? In what manner? To what extent?
Practice
1. They went though the motions
mechanically
.
2. In the confusion she
nearly
injured herself.
3. With much preparation they
eventually
left.
4. The applause ended, and the star
finally
appeared.
5. Six volunteers worked
cautiously
to free the child.
in what manner
to what extent
when
when
in what manner
Adverbs that Modify Adjectives
An adverb modifying an adjective answers only one question: To what extent?
Underline the adverb in each sentence
1. The afternoon sun was unusually pleasant.
2. We heard a very loud knock on the back door.
3. The author was extremely upset by the poor sales of her book.
4. The owner of the store has been seriously ill for some time.
5. She is thoroughly adept at walking on a high wire.
Adverbs Used in Sentences
Adverbs can be located in almost any part of a sentence.
* see notes for examples
Adverb or Adjective?
Depending on the words they modify, some words can be either adverbs or adjectives. You can always tell the difference by seeing what part of speech a word modifies. As an adjective, it will modify a noun or pronoun. As an adverb, it will modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
He works
hard
.
She enjoys
hard
work.
V
n
Adj.
Adv.
v.
Whiteboard Check
1. They ran
quickly
to their seats.
2. The people in the small town were
friendly
.
3. The
elderly
man could not walk
very
far.
Directions: Write the sentence. Determine whether the red word is an ADJ. or ADV. Draw an arrow to the word it modifies.
Although many words ending in -ly are adverbs, some are not. Several adjectives end in -ly. These adjectives are formed by adding -ly to nouns.
*see notes
Prepositions
Prepositions show relationships within a sentence.
A preposition relates the noun or pronoun following it to another word in the sentence.
You should learn to recognize prepositions on sight.
Prepositions consisting of more than one word are called compound prepositions.
*see notes for list
Whiteboard Check
Directions: Find the preposition in each of the following sentences.
1. A new dining room was built beside the old one.
2. The new highway passes next to the foothills.
3. You will find the pen on top of the desk.
4. How did you get through the traffic jam?
Prepositions Used in Sentences
A preposition is never used by itself in a sentence.
A preposition is always a part of a prepositional phrase.
Prepositional Phrases
A prepositional phrase is simply a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. The noun or pronoun following the preposition is called the object of the preposition.
Some prepositional phrases contain just two words-the preposition and its object. Others are longer because they contain modifiers.
Prepositional Phrases
A prepositional phrase regardless of its length, must have two parts: a preposition and an object of the preposition. The object of the preposition will generally be the first noun or pronoun following the preposition.
The cherry orchid was outside the house.
Prep.
Obj.
Whiteboard Check
1. What do you expect to buy in the village?
2. Between us, Glenn and I finished the apple.
3. The children were riding on top of a tired old donkey.
Directions: Write the prepositional phrase. Circle the preposition and underline the object of the preposition.
Conjunctions
The Conjunction
Conjunctions are connecting words such as
and
or
but
.
A conjunction connects words or groups of words.
There are three types of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, and subordinating conjunctions.
Coordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions connect similar words, groups of words, or even entire sentences.
F A N B O Y S
Practice (on your notes)
1. The farmhouse and the cornfields were flooded by the storm.
2. She will win or lose the gold medal with this dive.
3. A blue or green car will follow the van.
4. The bells ring at nine o'clock and at noon.
5. My uncle wanted to fish, but my father wanted to swim.
Interjections
Interjections
Correlative Conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions always come in pairs, such as
whether...or
and not
only... but also
. there are five such pairs you should learn.
both... and
either...or
neither...nor
not only...but also
whether...or
Practice (on your notes)
1. Either the small van or the bus will pick us up.
2. Neither he nor she is to be blamed.
3. Every morning, she both runs and swims.
4. She'll come- whether by train or by plane, I can't say.
5. Not only can they sing, but they can also tap-dance.
The interjection is the part of speech that is used least often of all.
An interjection expresses feeling or emotion.
Emotions and Feelings Expressed
Oh, we did not expect to see you today.
Surprise
Goodness! How good it is to see you.
Joy
Ouch! I stubbed my toe.
Pain
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