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The Scientific Method

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Daniella Spooner

on 7 April 2014

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Transcript of The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method
The Scientific Method
Is a series of 6 steps used to approve or disapprove a theory. Following these steps is fundamental so that scientific proof can be considered reliable.
Investigate
SCIENCE
Understand
Predict
Prove
Objectives:
Understand that the Scientific Method is a fundamental process in order to prove Scientific facts.
Use this Method to answer questions, formulate a hypothesis and test it through an experiment.
Step 2:
Q
uestion
B
eing
I
nvestigated (QBI) Ask a question
Step 3:
Hypothesis
Step 6: Conclusion
Step 1:
Observations

Explain
http://www.brainpop.com/science/scientificinquiry/scientificmethod/
Science
deals with processes that occur in the
Natural World.
When some things are unknown or aren't understood,
Scientists
are in charge of proposing
explanations
through
testable experiments.
What do you think is important for an experiment so it can be considered
reliable?
Step 5: Results and Interpretation
Step 4: Materials and Procedure
Observations are the things we are capable of
recording
and are of interest. Some are
qualitative
(from our senses) and other are
quantitative
(measurable). They can be more precise when we use instruments. This makes an experiment more
reliable.
Make observations by observing the following picture:
Lots of questions come from our observations. They help us narrow down or make our research more specific. Usually, scientists select one question to answer at a time.
Lets look at the picture again and come up with some QBIs.

Now, lets consider that we're using
two different types of soil
to evaluate
plant growth: Clay and Peaty Soil
Clay Soil
Peaty Soil
Which would be our final QBI?
Is something like a guess or an estimate, but a scientific one (educated). It allows you to predict an answer to your QBI. Some hypothesis are right and others wrong, which is OK.
If (independent variable) is related to (dependent variable), then ____ (prediction).

Ex: If the height of a plant depends on the type of soil it grows in, then plants will grow more in peaty soil.


Important: A Hypothesis
doesn't
start with: I THINK.
Step 3: Hypothesis


While stating a hypothesis, it is important to
identify variables.

A
variable
is a value that changes during an experiment. Variables are what we
measure
,
manipulate
and
keep constant
in order to make our research reliable.
Variables can be qualitative or quantitative.
There are three types of variables:

1.
Independent variable
: Is the variable that is manipulated or changed. In our experiment, it would be the
different types of soil.

2.
Dependent variable
: Is what is being measured. In our experiment, we want to evaluate or measure plant growth.
Plant growth is measured in height (cm or m).

3.
Controlled Variable
: Is what we keep constant so that our other variables aren't affected. In our experiment, keeping the
amount of soil,
the
amount of water/watering schedule
, ad
type of plant
are really important to keep the same. If not, we'll get mixed and unreliable results.
When variables are quantitative (measurable with an instrument), it is always important to be specific on the units of measurement.

Ex. Temperature (°C), Height (m), Weight (kg), Speed (km/h)
When we name controlled variables, we
don't mention
the instrument used to measure, since we assume it is the same for the entire experiment.

Ex. Thermometer, Ruler, Scale, Cronometer
a. Materials. A list of every material and their amounts has to be very detailed.
b. Procedure. Is a detailed list of every step of the experiment
During our experiments, we'll be gathering results that can be qualitative or quantitative.
We usually use tools such as tables and different types of graphs in order to organize and analyze this information.
The analysis or interpretation of our results must always use scientific language and be clear enough so that people that aren't familiar can understand.
That means that we always have to be
specific
: Using appropriate and
descriptive titles
,
labeling graphs
and always writing down the
units
in which we measure our results.
What would be an appropriate title for the following table?
Now, in order to interpret our results, we must construct an appropriate graph (line, bar, pie)
The evidence from the experiment is used to determine whether your hypothesis is accepted or rejected.

Is your hypothesis correct or incorrect?
State your results
Give a possible explanation


Ex. The hypothesis was proven correct. Plants grew more in Peaty soil than in Clay soil, since Peaty soil contains a higher amount of nutrients and water retention.

Hypothesis
Full transcript