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Zombie time line

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Louise Cole

on 27 January 2014

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Transcript of Zombie time line

Voodoo
2010
Ancient Myths
History of Zombie origins
Greeks
20. Believed that you could travel to the underworld and bring back a person whole. E.G Eurydice
Hollywood
Hollywood thrived on the idea of zombies crating many movies to thrill the audience including: The Mummy 1932 by Karl Freund. The Mummys Hand 1940. the mummys tomb 1942. Mummys Ghost 1944. the mummys curse 1944. and more recently the mummy 1999 and the mummy returns 2001.
"Throughout the years, the Zombie has been inextricably linked with voodoo, which is usually taken to be an Africa/Caribbean spirit religion with overtones of black magic." 115
Voodoo was the fragmented religion of the plantation workers. it is an umbrella term for many religions across American and Caribbean countries. The idea is of the spirits that pass through the world and can interact with he living is so choose. There are some self named priests but no official and no official meeting place. The workers would often meet in secret to practise's their faith making the plantation owners weary of uprisings. Some were forced to accept Christianity but most practiced Voodoo in secret.

119. According to voodoo, spirits are everywhere and regularly intervene. they are impulsive and unpredictable. they are easily flattered or angered, some are placid while others hostile. they prefer contacting children and can even posses people to pass on their message. they can all change the destiny of anyone and it is these spirits that control the world. Loa is the term used for the spirits. Damballa is the supreme spirit similar to a god. He is the symbol of fertility and is seen as a rainbow or a serpent. He is also known in folklore as "Le Gran Zombi" and "Le Zombi" possibly where the name Zombie originates. 126 The eternal spirit of Resurrection who has power over life and death. Erzulie Freda is his wife who watches over flowers, growth and resurrection. Papa Legba is the gate keeper to the world of the souls, he is one of the most potent symbols of voodoo. Petro voodoo is the darker strand that is more familiar to the west due to books and films.

From 1791 huge slave revolt began with the sacrifice or a black pig to Erzulie. the french were being over powered and so they sent rumors abroad to send more troops, including using dark arts, cannibalism and the use of dead men.they named them as zombies and the french and other parts of the world believed the story's giving voodoo an even darker name.
Zombie culture
Seabrook released 'Magic Island' in 1929 which introduced the idea of zombies to the western world and to Hollywood. the exotic nature of the book captured the western imagination and became a best seller. Zombies were new exotic and scary, 13

Seabrooks research inspired a number of books and films about the power of voodoo and zombies. White Zombie 1932, King of the Zombies 1941, Revolt of the Zombies 1936, Revenge 1943 and I walked with zombies 1943 were all films inspired by Seabrooks work. most plots were set in Haiti or surrounding Caribbean islands. Whit plantation workers were killed to be brought back to life as a shuffling corpse by a sorcery to work for them. some also portrayed the zombies as flesh eating, drawing inspiration from the african tribes. 'Killing the dead (book) Where Zombies walk and island of Zombies were common throughout 1930's and 1940's.

Seabrook was a hands on explorer that concluded in his book that the zombies he had met were not supernatural humans, but brain damaged individuals, forced to work as slave labor.

Zombies have become increasingly used for comic effect, maybe to make less scary?

"Yet the recent success of revisionist films such as the
Resident Evil series, 28 Days Later, Dawn of the Dead and I Am Legend,
suggests that the zombie holocaust is still something that speaks to audiences on a very primal level." 8 Holocaust

The word Zombie was introduced into the oxford dictionary in 1819 due to slavery, although seabrook was one of the most popular, he was not the first writer to write about zombies. 11 holocaust

Fear
People may deal with loss in different ways such as wishing the person was still there. sensing the dead persons presents in a favorite place of the person. people also claim that they have seen the spirits. they can also wish for their loved ones in a corporal state.
Films



Tombs of the Blind Dead Amando de Ossorio 1971 [288] [284]
Baron Blood (Gli orrori del castello di Norimberga) Mario Bava 1972 [16] [12]
Blood of Ghastly Horror Al Adamson 1972 [33] [28]
Children Shouldn't Play with Dead Things Bob Clark 1972 [49] [44]
Messiah of Evil Willard Huyck & Gloria Katz 1972 [184] [175]
Curse of the Living Dead (Les Démoniaques) Jean Rollin 1973 [59] [54]
The Hanging Woman (Return of the Zombies) José Luis Merino 1973 [131] [129]
The Hidan of Maukbeiangjow
(Invasion of the Girl Snatchers, Kaspar and Prudence Laugh Till It Hurts at The Killers of the Zombie Plot: A Musical) Lee Jones 1973 aliens possess corpses [133] [131]
Horror Express (Pánico en el Transiberiano, Panic on the Trans-Siberian Express) Eugenio Martín 1973 [138] [135]
House of the Living Dead (Doctor Maniac) Ray Austin 1973 [148] [143]
Return of the Blind Dead Amando de Ossorio 1973 second film in Ossorio's Blind Dead series [245][246] [238]
Vengeance of the Zombies (La rebelión de las muertas) León Klimovsky 1973 [299] [295]
A Virgin Among the Living Dead Jesús Franco 1973 main character has visions of zombies [301][303] [299]
Dead of Night Bob Clark 1974 [79] [75]
Garden of the Dead John Hayes 1974 [121] [119]
The Ghost Galleon Amando de Ossorio 1974 [123] [121]
The House of Seven Corpses Paul Harrison 1974 [143][144] [139]
Let Sleeping Corpses Lie Jorge Grau 1974 [46][178] [168]
Sugar Hill Paul Maslansky 1974 [276] [273]
Night of the Seagulls Amando de Ossorio 1975 [199] [192]
Revenge of the Zombies (Gou hun jiang tou, Black Magic II) Ho Meng Hua 1976 [252] [247]
Shock Waves Ken Wiederhorn 1977 [267] [264]
Dawn of the Dead George A. Romero 1978 sequel to Night of the Living Dead [24] [58]
Les Raisins de la Mort (The Grapes of Death, Pesticide) Jean Rollin 1978 [176][177] [167]
Zombi 2 (Zombie Flesh-Eaters) Lucio Fulci 1979 an unlicensed sequel to Zombi (the Italian title of Dawn of the Dead) [318][24] [315]
Alien Dead Fred Olen Ray 1980 [7][8] [4]
The Children Max Kalmanowicz 1980 [47] [42]
City of the Living Dead Lucio Fulci 1980 first in The Gates of Hell trilogy [54] [49]
Erotic Nights of the Living Dead (Sexy Nights of the Living Dead) Joe D'Amato 1980 [104] [101]
Nightmare City (City of the Walking Dead) Umberto Lenzi 1980 [206] [194]
Zombie Holocaust (Zombi Holocaust) Marino Girolami 1980 [329] [327]
The Beyond Lucio Fulci 1981 second film in The Gates of Hell trilogy [23] [19]
Burial Ground: The Nights of Terror Andrea Bianchi 1981 [43] [38]
Dawn of the Mummy Frank Agrama 1981 [64] [60]
Dead & Buried Gary Sherman 1981 [71] [67]
The Evil Dead Sam Raimi 1981 [105] [102]
Hell of the Living Dead (Night of the Zombies) Bruno Mattei 1981 [132] [130]
The House by the Cemetery Lucio Fulci 1981 third in The Gates of Hell trilogy [145] [140]
Kiss Daddy Goodbye (Revenge of the Zombie) Patrick Regan 1981 [169] [161]
Zombie Lake Jean Rollin 1981 [334][335] [331]
I Was a Zombie for the F.B.I. Marius Penczner 1982 [160] [151]
La Morte Vivante (The Living Dead Girl) Jean Rollin 1982 [185] [176]
Oasis of the Zombies Jesús Franco 1982 French-Spanish co-production [209] [197]
Hysterical Chris Bearde 1983 [149] [144]
One Dark Night Tom McLoughlin 1983 [210] [198]
Wilczyca (The Wolf, She-Wolf) Marek Piestrak 1983 dead woman comes back as an undead werewolf [310][311] [308]
Zeder (Revenge of the Dead) Pupi Avati 1983 [315] [312]
Night of the Comet Thom Eberhardt 1984 [191] [181]
Surf II Randall Badat 1984 drink turns people into zombies [278] [275]
Day of the Dead George A. Romero 1985 second sequel to Night of the Living Dead [65] [61]
Re-Animator Stuart Gordon 1985 [46] [224]
The Return of the Living Dead Dan O'Bannon 1985 [24] [239]
Night of the Creeps Fred Dekker 1986 [192] [182]
Raiders of the Living Dead Samuel M. Sherman 1986 [231] [222]
The Rape After Ho Meng Hua & Moon-Tong Lau 1986 [232] [223]
The Supernaturals Armand Mastroianni 1986 [277] [274]
Zombie Brigade Carmelo Musca & Barrie Pattison 1986 [324] [321]
Zombie Nightmare Jack Bravman 1986 [339] [336]
Creepshow 2 Michael Gornick 1987 [57] [52]
Evil Dead II Sam Raimi 1987 [105][24] [103]
I Was a Teenage Zombie John Elias Michalakis 1987 [159] [150]
Killing Spree Tim Ritter 1987 [168] [159]
Prince of Darkness (John Carpenter's Prince of Darkness) John Carpenter 1987 [228] [218]
Redneck Zombies Pericles Lewnes 1987 [236] [228]
Revenge of the Living Dead Girls Pierre B. Reinhard 1987 [249] [244]
The Video Dead Robert Scott 1987 [300] [296]
Zombie High Ron Link 1987 [328] [326]
Dead Heat Mark Goldblatt 1988 [74] [70]
The Dead Next Door J.R. Bookwalter 1988 [78] [74]
The Discarnates (Summer Among the Zombies, Ijintachi tono natsu) Nobuhiko Obayashi 1988 [95] [92]
FleshEater (Zombie Nosh) Bill Hinzman 1988 [113] [110]
Maniac Cop William Lustig 1988 [182] [173]
Return of the Living Dead Part II Ken Wiederhorn 1988 [201] [240]
The Serpent and the Rainbow Wes Craven 1988 [260] [256]
Waxwork Anthony Hickox 1988 [308] [304]
Zombi 3 (Zombie Flesh Eaters 2) Lucio Fulci & Bruno Mattei 1988 [319] [316]
Zombie 4: After Death (Oltre la morte, Zombie Flesh Eaters 3) Claudio Fragasso 1988 [320] [317]
Beverly Hills Bodysnatchers Jonathan Mostow 1989 [21] [17]
C.H.U.D. II: Bud the C.H.U.D. David Irving 1989 [52] [47]
The Dead Pit Brett Leonard 1989 [82] [78]
Night Life David Acomba 1989 [205] [193]
Pet Sematary Mary Lambert 1989 [216] [204]
The Vineyard James Hong 1989 [301] [297]
The Boneyard James Cummins 1990 [35] [30]
Frankenhooker Frank Henenlotter 1990 Frankenstein-like re-assembled monster [118] [116]
Maniac Cop 2 William Lustig 1990 [183] [174]
Night of the Living Dead Tom Savini 1990 remake [183][199] [186]
Black Demons (Dèmoni 3) Umberto Lenzi 1991 unrelated to Demoni films by Lamberto Bava [28] [23]
Bride of Re-Animator Brian Yuzna 1991 [41] [36]
Chopper Chicks in Zombietown Dan Hoskins 1991 [51] [46]
Night of the Day of the Dawn of the Son of the Bride of the Return of the Revenge of the Terror of the Attack of the Evil, Mutant, Alien, Flesh Eating, Hellbound, Zombified Living Dead Part 2: In Shocking 2-D James Riffel 1991 [193][194] [183]
Nudist Colony of the Dead Mark Pirro 1991 [208] [196]
Zombie 5: Killing Birds (Uccelli assassini) Claudio Lattanzi 1991 [321] [318]
Army of Darkness Sam Raimi 1992 third film in The Evil Dead franchise [12] [8]
Braindead (Dead Alive) Peter Jackson 1992 First zombie movie from New Zealand [24][40] [35]
Pet Sematary Two Mary Lambert 1992 [217] [205]
Waxwork II: Lost in Time Anthony Hickox 1992 [308] [305]
Ed and His Dead Mother Jonathan Wacks 1993 [102] [99]
Ghost Brigade (The Lost Brigade) George Hickenlooper 1993 [125] [123]
My Boyfriend's Back Bob Balaban 1993 [190] [180]
Ozone J.R. Bookwalter 1993 drug turns people into zombies [212] [200]
Return of the Living Dead 3 Brian Yuzna 1993 [27] [241]
Zombie Bloodbath Todd Sheets 1993 [323] [320]
Zombie Genocide Andrew Harrison, Khris Carville, & Darryl Sloan 1993 [227] [325]
Cemetery Man (Dellamorte Dellamore) Michele Soavi 1994 [46] [41]
Shatter Dead Scooter McCrae 1994 [266] [262]
Legion of the Night Matt Jaissle 1995 [175] [166]
Zombie Holocaust (Female Mercenaries on Zombie Island) Gary Whitson 1995 [330] [328]
Uncle Sam William Lustig 1996 [291] [287]
Plaga Zombie Pablo Parés & Hernán Sáez 1997 First-ever Argentine zombie horror film and part of the Plaga Zombie film series. [219] [207]
Premutos: The Fallen Angel (Premutos – Der gefallene Engel, aka Premutos: Lord of the Living Dead) Olaf Ittenbach 1997 [227] [217]
Bio Zombie (Sun faa sau si) Wilson Yip 1998 [27] [22]
Scooby-Doo on Zombie Island Hiroshi Aoyama & Kazumi Fukushima 1998 [227] [254]
I, Zombie: The Chronicles of Pain (I, Zombie) Andrew Parkinson 1999 [161] [152]
Violent Shit III: Infantry of Doom (Zombie Doom) Andreas Schnaas 1999 [302] [298]
Zombie! vs. Mardi Gras Will Frank & Karl DeMolay 1999 [340] [337]
The Dead Hate the Living! Dave Parker 2000 [75] [71]
Junk (Shiryo-gari) Atsushi Muroga 2000 [167][95] [158]
Machine Head Michael Patrick, Leonard Murphy 2000 [179] [170]
Versus (Vāsasu) Ryuhei Kitamura 2000 [46][298] [294]
Wild Zero Tetsuro Takeuchi 2000 [312][95] [309]
Children of the Living Dead Tor Ramsey 2001 [48] [43]
Plaga Zombie: Zona Mutante Pablo Parés & Hernán Sáez 2001 [219] [208]
Ritual (Tales from the Crypt: Ritual) Avi Nesher 2001 [255] [250]
Route 666 William Wesley 2001 [257] [252]
Stacy Naoyuki Tomomatsu 2001 [95][271] [268]
The Zombie Chronicles Brad Sykes 2001 [325] [322]
28 Days Later Danny Boyle 2002 Infected humans [4][5] [1]
Deathwatch Michael J. Bassett 2002 [86] [83]
Resident Evil Paul W. S. Anderson 2002 first in Resident Evil series [239] [231]
Battlefield Baseball (Jigoku Kôshien) Yūdai Yamaguchi 2003 [19] [15]
Beyond Re-Animator Brian Yuzna 2003 [24][25] [20]
The Ghouls (Cannibal Dead: The Ghouls, Urban Cannibals) Chad Ferrin 2003 [126] [124]
Gory Gory Hallelujah Sue Corcoran 2003 [128] [126]
House of the Dead Uwe Boll 2003 [146] [141]
Undead Michael Spierig & Peter Spierig 2003 [292] [288]
Zombie Night David J. Francis 2003 [338] [334]
Zombiegeddon Chris Watson 2003 [341] [338]
Zombie Planet George Bonilla 2003 [344] [341]
Bone Sickness Brian Paulin 2004 [34] [29]
Choking Hazard Marek Dobes 2004 [50] [45]
Curse of the Maya (Dawn of the Living Dead, Evil Grave: Curse of the Maya) David Heavener 2004 [60] [55]
Dawn of the Dead Zack Snyder 2004 remake [63] [59]
Dead & Breakfast Matthew Leutwyler 2004 [70] [66]
Dead Meat Conor McMahon 2004 [76] [72]
Ghost Lake Jay Woelfel 2004 [124] [122]
Graveyard Alive: A Zombie Nurse in Love Elza Kephart 2004 [130] [128]
Hide and Creep Chuck Hartsell & Chance Shirley 2004 [134] [132]
Die Nacht der lebenden Loser (Night of the Living Dorks) Mathias Dinter 2004 [204] [191]
Resident Evil: Apocalypse Alexander Witt 2004 [170] [232]
SARS Wars Taweewat Wantha 2004 [258] [253]
Shaolin vs. Evil Dead (Shao lin jiang shi, Siu lam geung see) Douglas Kung 2004 [265] [261]
Shaun of the Dead Edgar Wright 2004 [24] [263]
They Came Back Robin Campillo 2004 [285] [281]
Vampires vs. Zombies (Carmilla, the Lesbian Vampire) Vince D'Amato 2004 [297] [293]
Zombie Honeymoon David Gebroe 2004 [331] [329]
Zombie King and the Legion of Doom (Zombie Beach Party, Enter ... Zombie King) Stacey Case 2004 [332][333] [330]
Zombie Nation Ulli Lommel 2004 [337] [333]
All Souls Day Jeremy Kasten 2005 [9] [5]
Beneath Still Waters Brian Yuzna 2005 [20] [16]
Boy Eats Girl Stephen Bradley 2005 [38] [33]
Day of the Dead 2: Contagium Ana Clavell & James Glenn Dudelson 2005 [67] [63]
Dead Men Walking Peter Mervis 2005 [77] [73]
Die You Zombie Bastards! Caleb Emerson 2005 [92] [89]
Die Zombiejäger Jonas Wolcher 2005 Sweden's first zombie feature film [93] [90]
Doom Andrzej Bartkowiak 2005 [98] [95]
Evil (To Κακό) Yorgos Noussias 2005 [107][108] [105]
Hood of the Living Dead Eduardo Quiroz & Jose Quiroz 2005 [135][136] [133]
House of the Dead 2 Michael Hurst 2005 [147] [142]
Land of the Dead George A. Romero 2005 [170][171] [162]
Livelihood Ryan Graham 2005 [40] [169]
Mortuary Tobe Hooper 2005 [186] [177]
Return of the Living Dead: Necropolis Ellory Elkayem 2005 [247] [242]
Return of the Living Dead: Rave to the Grave (Return of the Living Dead 5: Rave to the Grave, Return of the Living Dead: Rave from the Grave) Ellory Elkayem 2005 [248] [243]
The Roost Ti West 2005 [256] [251]
Severed: Forest of the Dead Carl Bessai 2005 not to be confused with Forest of the Dead [263] [259]
The Stink of Flesh Scott Phillips 2005 [275] [272]
Swamp Zombies Len Kabasinski 2005 [280] [277]
Tokyo Zombie Sakichi Satō 2005 [287] [283]
Automaton Transfusion Steven C. Miller 2006 [14] [10]
Black Sheep Jonathan King 2006 zombie sheep [29] [24]
City of Rott Frank Sudol 2006 [53] [48]
Dead and Deader Patrick Dinhut 2006 [73] [69]
Fido Andrew Currie 2006 [111] [108]
Forbidden Siren (Sairen) Yukihiko Tsutsumi 2006 live-action adaptation of Siren video game series [116] [113]
Gangs of the Dead (Last Rites) Duane Stinnett 2006 [120] [118]
Horrors of War Peter John Ross & John Whitney 2006 [140] [137]
Mulberry Street Jim Mickle 2006 [187][188] [178]
Night of the Dead (Night of the Leben Tod) Eric Forsberg 2006 [195] [184]
Night of the Living Dead 3D (Night of the Living DE3D) Jeff Broadstreet 2006 [200] [187]
Pathogen Emily Hagins 2006 documentary Zombie Girl: The Movie covers the making of this movie [214] [202]
The Plague (Clive Barker's The Plague) Hal Masonberg 2006 [220] [209]
Poultrygeist: Night of the Chicken Dead Lloyd Kaufman 2006 [226] [216]
The Quick and the Undead Gerald Nott 2006 [230] [221]
Shadow: Dead Riot Derek Wan 2006 [264] [260]
Slither James Gunn 2006 [270] [267]
War of the Zombies Giuseppe Vari 2006 [305] [301]
Wicked Little Things J.S. Cardone 2006 [309] [307]
The Zombie Diaries Michael Bartlett & Kevin Gates 2006 [326] [323]
Zombie Night 2: Awakening David J. Francis 2006 sequel [237] [335]
Zombie Wars David A. Prior 2006 [347] [345]
28 Weeks Later Juan Carlos Fresnadillo 2007 sequel to 28 Days Later [4] [2]
American Zombie Grace Lee 2007 [11] [7]
Black Swarm (Night of the Drones) David Winning 2007 [30] [25]
Brain Blockers Lincoln Kupchak 2007 [39] [34]
Days of Darkness Jake Kennedy 2007 [68] [64]
Dorm of the Dead Donald Farmer 2007 [99] [96]
Flight of the Living Dead: Outbreak on a Plane Scott Thomas 2007 [115] [112]
Forest of the Dead Brian Singleton 2007 [117] [114]
Forever Dead Christine Parker 2007 [117] [115]
I Am Legend Francis Lawrence 2007 infected humans [150][151][152][153][154] [145]
I Am Omega Griff Furst 2007 [155] [146]
The Mad John Kalangis 2007 [180] [171]
Planet Terror Robert Rodriguez 2007 [223] [213]
REC Jaume Balagueró & Paco Plaza 2007 original [233] [225]
Resident Evil: Extinction Russell Mulcahy 2007 [240] [233]
Undead or Alive Glasgow Phillips 2007 [293] [289]
Undead Pool (Attack Girls' Swim Team Versus the Undead) Kôji Kawano 2007 [294] [290]
Urban Decay Harry Basil 2007 [296] [292]
Wasting Away (Aaah! Zombies!!) Matthew Kohnen 2007 [307] [303]
Zibahkhana (Hell's Ground) Omar Khan 2007 Pakistan's first zombie movie [316] [313]
Zombies! Zombies! Zombies! Jason M. Murphy 2007 [346] [344]
Colin Marc Price 2008 [56] [51]
Dance of the Dead Gregg Bishop 2008 [61] [56]
Day of the Dead Steve Miner 2008 remake [66] [62]
The Dead Outside Kerry Anne Mullaney 2008 [81] [77]
Dead Snow Tommy Wirkola 2008 [24] [79]
Dead Space: Downfall Chuck Patton 2008 animated film based on Dead Space video game [83] [80]
Deadgirl Marcel Sarmiento & Gadi Harel 2008 [84] [81]
Deep River: The Island Ben Bachelder 2008 [88] [85]
Diary of the Dead George A. Romero 2008 fourth sequel to Night of the Living Dead [91] [88]
Edges of Darkness Jason Horton & Blaine Cade 2008 [103] [100]
Flick David Howard 2008 [114] [111]
Grave Mistake Shawn Darling 2008 [129] [127]
I Sell the Dead Glenn McQuaid 2008 [157] [148]
Insanitarium Jeff Buhler 2008 [162] [153]
Last of the Living Logan McMillan 2008 [173] [164]
Make-out with Violence Deagol Brothers 2008 [181] [172]
Ninjas vs. Zombies Justin Timpane 2008 [207] [195]
Outpost Steve Barker 2008 [211] [199]
Plaguers Brad Sykes 2008 alien orb turns people into zombies [222] [211]
Quarantine John Erick Dowdle 2008 remake of REC [229] [219]
Reel Zombies David J. Francis 2008 third installment in Zombie Night series, mockumentary [237] [229]
Resident Evil: Degeneration (Biohazard: Degeneration) Makoto Kamiya 2008 animated [243] [236]
Sexykiller (Sexykiller, morirás por ella) Paco Cabeza 2008 [262] [258]
Stag Night of the Dead Neil Jones 2008 [273] [270]
Trailer Park of Terror Steven Goldmann 2008 [290] [286]
Uniform SurviGirl I (Seifuku Survivor Girl, Seifuku sabaigâru I) Hiroshi Kaneko 2008 [295] [291]
Yoroi Samurai Zombie (Yoroi: Samurai Zonbie, Samurai Zombie) Tak Sakaguchi 2008 [314][112] [311]
Autumn Steven Rumbelow 2009 [15] [11]
Blood Creek (Creek, Town Creek) Joel Schumacher 2009 [32] [27]
The Book of Zombie Scott Kragelund, Paul Cranefield, Erik Van Sant 2009 [36] [31]
Broken Springs (Broken Springs: Shrine of the Undead Zombie Bastards) Neeley Lawson 2009 [42] [37]
The Crypt Craig McMahon 2009 [58] [53]
Dark Floors Pete Riski 2009 [62] [57]
Dead Air Corbin Bernsen 2009 [72] [68]
Doghouse Jake West 2009 [97] [94]
Eat Me! (The Eaters) Katie Carman 2009 [101] [98]
Evil: In the Time of Heroes (To Κακό 2: Στην Eποχή Tων Hρώων) Yorgos Noussias 2009 sequel to "To Κακό" [109] [106]
Gallowwalkers Andrew Goth 2009 [119] [117]
The Horde (La Horde) Yannick Dahan & Benjamin Rocher 2009 [137] [134]
Mutants (2009 film) David Morlet 2009 [189] [179]
Night of the Living Dead: Reanimated Mike Schneider 2009 [203] [190]
Pontypool Bruce McDonald 2009 zombie appears like infected human [224] [214]
REC 2 Jaume Balagueró & Paco Plaza 2009 sequel to REC [234] [226]
The Revenant D. Kerry Prior 2009 combination of zombie and vampire [250] [245]
Silent Night, Zombie Night Sean Cain 2009 [268] [265]
Tormented Jon Wright 2009 [289] [285]
ZMD: Zombies of Mass Destruction Kevin Hamedani 2009 [317] [314]
Zombieland Ruben Fleischer 2009 [342] [339]
Zone of the Dead (Зона мртвих, Zona Mrtvih, Apocalypse of the Dead) Milan Konjević & Milan Todorović 2009 [349] [347]
Beverly Lane Joshua Hull 2010 [22] [18]
Big Tits Zombie (Big Tits Dragon: Hot Spring Zombie Vs. Stripper 5) Takao Nakano 2010 [26] [21]
The Dead Howard J. Ford & Jonathan Ford 2010 [69] [65]
Devil's Playground Mark McQueen 2010 [90] [87]
Die-ner (Get It?) Patrick Horvath 2010 [94] [91]
Horrorween Joe Estevez 2010 [141][142] [138]
Island: Wedding of the Zombies (Ada: Zombilerin Düğünü, The Zombie Wedding) Murat Emir Eren, Talip Ertürk 2010 [165] [156]
Juan of the Dead (Juan de los Muertos) Alejandro Brugués 2010 Cuba's first zombie movie [166] [157]
L.A. Zombie (Gay of the Dead) Bruce LaBruce 2010 Adult film [174] [165]
Night of the Living Dead: Origins 3D Zebediah de Soto 2010 [202][201] [189]
Resident Evil: Afterlife Paul W. S. Anderson 2010 [241] [234]
Sint (Saint, Saint Nick) Dick Maas 2010 [269] [266]
Survival of the Dead George A. Romero 2010 [279] [276]
They Walk Charles House II 2010 [286] [282]
Zombie Massacre Luca Boni and Marco Ristori 2010 [336] [332]
Bled White Jose Carlos Gomez 2011 [31] [26]
The Cabin in the Woods Drew Goddard 2011 [44] [39]
Caustic Zombies Johnny Daggers 2011 [45] [40]
DeadHeads Brett Pierce & Drew T. Pierce 2011 [85] [82]
Dylan Dog: Dead of Night Kevin Munroe 2011 [100] [97]
Fading of the Cries Brian A. Metcalf 2011 [110] [107]
First Platoon Chris Gabriel 2011 [112] [109]
Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides Rob Marshall 2011 [218] [206]
Pop Punk Zombies Steve Dayton 2011 [225] [215]
Quarantine 2: Terminal John Pogue 2011 [112] [220]
Remains (Steve Niles' Remains) Colin Theys 2011 [238] [230]
Schoolgirl Apocalypse John S. Cairns 2011 [259] [255]
State of Emergency Turner Clay 2011 [274] [271]
War of the Dead (Stone's War) Marko Makilaakso 2011 [304] [300]
Zombie Ass (Zombie Ass: Toilet of the Dead) Noboru Iguchi 2011 [322] [319]
The Zombie Diaries 2 Michael Bartlett & Kevin Gates 2011 sequel [327] [324]
Abraham Lincoln vs. Zombies Richard Schenkman 2012 [6] [3]
The Amazing Adventures of the Living Corpse Justin Paul Ritter 2012 [10] [6]
The Battery Jeremy Gardner 2012 [18] [14]
Cockneys vs Zombies Matthias Hoene 2012 [55] [50]
Decay Luke Thompson 2012 [87] [84]
Night of the Living Dead 3D: Re-Animation Jeff Broadstreet 2012 prequel to Night of the Living DE3D [201] [188]
ParaNorman Sam Fell & Chris Butler 2012 described as a "zombie movie for kids" [213] [201]
REC 3: Genesis Paco Plaza 2012 parallel stories to REC [235] [227]
Resident Evil: Retribution Paul W. S. Anderson 2012 [242] [235]
Resident Evil: Damnation Makoto Kamiya 2012 animated [244] [237]
Rise of the Zombies Nick Lyon 2012 [254] [249]
The Zombinator Sergio Myers 2012 [348] [346]
Bath Salt Zombies Dustin Mills 2013 drug turns people into flesh-eating zombies [17] [13]
Evil Dead Fede Alvarez 2013 reboot [106] [104]
Go Goa Gone Raj Nidimoru and Krishna D.K. 2013 publicized as India's first "zom-com" [127] [125]
Percy Jackson: Sea of Monsters Thor Freudenthal 2013 [215] [203]
Stalled Christian James 2013 [272] [269]
Warm Bodies Jonathan Levine 2013 [306] [302]
World War Z
Egypt
23. Death is a stage or another existence in a series of lives. Bodies preserved for the afterlife, that they couldn't return from. The gods and Goddesses story's are full of resurrections. Osiris was tricked into a coffin and killed by his brother to be resurrected by his sister/wife. Only the gods had power over life and death. Osiris has links to Frankenstein with his variation of the story with scattering his body to be collected and put back together by his wife.
Babylonian Myth
27. Tammuz a fertility god who goes to the underworld for the winter. 2500 BCE. Kur is the underworld of death where they tried to trap the goddess Inanna who traded her freedom for Tammuz. but later begged for his release and resurrection. Similar to the Cholas civilization.
The Middle East
31. Ba'al a complicated god of most things that involve a resurrection of one of his incarnations. similar to Osiris, Ba'al's brother Mot, killed him and scattered his remains around the world. his sister and wife both collected the parts with help of the sun god and put him back together then pleaded for his return which the gods grated by his wife's tears, the breath of the god (wind) ect.
Early Hebrew
33. The afterlife, sheol, similar to Kur, the departed, good and bad would mill around here and eat dirt which is what they did apparently. eventually it developed into levels of torture for the wicked and 'Gehenna', with other levels for the good. Gehenna actually existed as a rubish dump for the Jerusalem city where body's of criminals were thrown. A fire constantly burns there either from city officials or the heat. The god Moloch's possibly an adaptation of Ba'al was the god of this. this valley inspire the idea of hell and interpreted by others as the greek hades. resurrection was vague but possible for the non gods.
King Saul
Possibly 1006 BCE The king's profit was dead and god refused to talk to him so a witch used magic to bring him back to talk to the king. his resurrection is unclear, could have been a vision or a zombie.
Elijah
38. Hebrew prophet with the power to resurrect.
Enoch
Jewish and Christians say that Enoch was similar to Elijah living between 3284 and 3017 BCE. departing life at 300 years old, go spared him death and walked with him to heaven. while there he gained favoritism and god granted him fire and lighting powers. There are incantations in sorcery books to resurrect him and his body.
Christianity
44. Jesus himself was resurrected from the crusifiction, the most famous resurection in cristianity and the body in a tangible form. the story has lasted 2,000 years and is the only story of a spirit returning through their own divine will. but he also resurrected people too as some of his miracles, the dying girl for example. Lazarua was ordered to rise from his tomb by Jesus and did in his burial bandages. The most famous physical resurrection maybe inspired by the earlier myths of resurrected gods.
Celtic Mythology
the beauty and health of a monarch reflected the land and so as they got older they had to die and resurrect to insure the health of the land. Warriors could also be resurrected after dying in battle by using magic and water. water was considered a magical force that could kill, resurrect and heal. fountain of youth juan pons de leon

the cauldron was seen as a symbol of rebirth for the Celts. there is a story of Matholwch reviving a magical cauldron as an apology where if a dead warrior was placed into the pot he would be resurrected whole but have no ability to speak similar to several other versions of early zombies. 56.
Religion
"the notion of such returns was linked with the idea of immortality and of continuing at least some form of existence even after death had claimed the individual." 63. zombies field guide.

Ritual consumption of the body of christ has ancient roots. "Contemporary stories about the living dead constantly recycle terms and temes found in the prophets though to be sure, the ancestry of modern zombies is long and varied." Pg.90 ZRU
the bible played a massive part in influencing the western imagination.
"Corpses, burials, resurrections, bodily decay, pain and torment, enduring and unwanted existence, all of these subjects fascinate the biblical writers who see compositions in turn have such a massive presence among cultural artifacts of the western world, including stories around the living dead." 91 ZRU

Ghost tales.
Nordic
Nordic people believed that death was a state of sleep one could wale from so buried bodies, mainly of warriors were in houses special houses for the dead. they believed they could rise from their resting places and roam at night on their own or in numbers but were considered dangerous and deadly as the corps state could inflict harm. Draugr A violent warrior rose ever night to terrorize and kill the local villages he was a corps that was eventually stopped either by beheading and burning or being exhumed and buried on a hill and walled in.
medieval
The church recognized 2 types of the undead. The spirits that would appear to advise and be controlled by god or just ghosts that would soon be guided to the afterlife by god. The other was the dangerous corpses. they were seen as abandoned bodies like deserted houses that evil spirits must return to or that a demons could inhabit. the lines between spirits and corpses were occasionally blurred saying that both could harm you or your property. Stories of supernaturals were popular in the 14th and 15th century in the English court called wonder tales or marvels. this marks the change of stories designed to encourage righteousness, to entertainment. corpses were seen as agents of the devil and these stories were maybe some of the first of what we described as a ghost story.
In the later 16th and 17th century (p.77) the clergy of the church began teaching the tale of a different type of corpse that may return to the living world. Godly people could return with gods permission to enjoy earthly comforts of food, drink, tobacco and a warm bed after sleeping in the clay. This would happen on special celebration days, particularly Halloween or the day of the dead. As it was gods will they would be whole and appear as in life.

The logic appeared that if God could resurrect people, so could the Devil. Their purpose was to spread disease and cause harm to righteous people almost as a test of faith. "these ideas became stronger, firmly establishing the notion of the walking dead in the common consciousness" (p.78 Zombie field guide)
Ghost tales Medical
Constance Whitney
Cataleptic is a condition where the body muscles tighten, pain is almost undetectable shallow breathing and rigidity of posture causing the appearance of death. Constance was a grand woman with this condition that was about to be buried with a fine ring. a greed church sexton decided to steal it and tried to cut it free from her swollen finger causing her to wake from the trace. She lived for several years after and is now commemorated in a London cathedral. In the 1800 cases of mistaken death were still being recorded by reputable doctors re affirming the corpses rising belief.

"Resurrectionists" - Burk and hare - criminals dug up bodies to sell to surgeons for a lot of money, even on occasion murdering for bodies to sell.
American grave robbers.
Laws were created in America as early as 1655 to stop people digging up graves for bodies. not for science, but for witch craft. body parts were believed to be aids to magical resurrection. in the late 1970's a panflet was printed describing the story of Rober Rudd and how he asked an indian magic man to help resurrect his dead wife that rose without wit and died again soon after. "Goofer Dust" (powdered remains of body's) were common in hill and mountain magic. John George Hohman (P.99) wrote a series of panflets with 'goofer dust' as the central theme.
Bodies were being stolen for anatomical purposes on a smaller scale than England.
In 1852 a building in Ohio labeled chemical laboratory was raided to find up to 20 seperate bodies being used to create 'goomer' believed to heal and resurrect.
1900's
1900 literature in the west became strongly influenced by the idea of the undead. Charles Dickings, (the tale of 2 cities and the poet Robert Southey in 'the surgeons Warning' Rober Louis Stevenson wrote on of the most famous 'The Body Snatchers' inspired Burke and Hare.
Half Hanged
Literature
Hanging was a common form of punishment from medieval times onwards. during the 1900 it became illegal to pull the legs of the hanged to insure a proper death, as this could be considered murder. the people that were unsuccessfully hanged were known as half hangers and were often left severely brain damaged. Margret Dixon was a victim who woke on the cart to the mortuary and terrified the villagers. 104.
"The notion of executed corpses rising again spread a kind of fearful interest all through 18th and 19th century societies." 106 zombie field guide.
The great awakening
1730 - 1740 religious fervour was named as 'The First Great Awakening' religious groups in America and across Europe had convinced themselves that the
end of the world was coming and judgment day was pending. in may 1780 an solar eclipse was seen as proof across the east coast of America. George whitefield created his own church in 1960 that believed that pure souls did not decay and so on judgment day god would come to earth to collect the saints who would crawl from the ground in perfect condition. As they didn't want to crawl from the grounds the created stone tombs in the hills of Ireland so they could simply walk out to greet god.
"All of these strands - the medieval notions of the violent risen dead, the later activities of the resurrectionist, the half-hanged, and the holy corpses awaiting the final call - came together in the human psyche to create a notion of the dead who were "merely sleeping" ad might rise from thier tombs and walk about at anytime, for whatever purpose." 107 field guide.
Egyptian Hangings
The egyptian underworld was known as Nun which bodies would pass through primal waters and become reborn in a new life, therefore the bodies needed to be preserved. in the late 18th and 19th century man explores were drawn to the valley of the kings by rumors of treasure. In an attempt to protect the bodies, rumors we circulated about 'The pharaohs curse' that anyone who grave robbed would have a terrible death. in 1922 the tomb of Tutankhamen was found and rumors of a curse in scripted on the door caught the attention of the western world. 8 of the 58 people connected with the opening of the tomb died which was enough to enhance the rumors and intrigue the western world further. the Idea of a bandaged monster rising from the dead was ingrained in the popular culture.
"with the addition of the mummy, the perception of the walking cadaver was almost complete. the walking dead were now inextricably linked with evil and threat in the public perception." 113 field guide
In the 19th century in slaves escaped plantations in new Orleans where rumors said they had hidden graveyards that they resurrected bodies to do their evil and revengeful bidding. this was seen as a possibility at the time.

Le baron is an american voodoo adaptation of papa legba that became Baron Samedi and on to become Baron Cimtiere, lord of the cemetery and of zombies. he waits at the grave yard for the next burial to take over the spirit unless the proper distractions are offered (rum and ciggars) he then has the power to control the spirits and resurrect the cadavers. Babalu Aye is a older and similar character to the baron that may have been the original source of the spirit. from the 1700 onwards, there were many self proclaimed voodoo priests that claimed to raised the dead.
Reported to the western world.
There were many witch doctors and voodoo practitioners throughout America in the 1800's and 1900's. It was brought over by slaves and adapted and modified as time drew on. William Buehler Seabrook 1884-1945. Was a reporter journalist that traveled the world living with different cults to learn about them. His books became very popular and with tales of Haiti he traveled there to learn about voodoo. in 1929 he released a book called 'The Magic Island'. they called the god nzambi and he was the first to coin the name Zombie for the walking cadavers. The section of the book called "Dead men working in the cane fields' was re printed in many magazines that circulated the western world. The Idea of dead corpses shuffling and working as slaves was truly established in the minds of the westen culture and inspired the first film 'White Zombie' 149.

Drugs were suggested to be used by voodoo doctors to take away free will and give the appearance of death. In Columbia a new drug known as 'Devils breath' does precisely this but may not have been accessible in Haiti at the time. the drug is called Scopolamine.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2143584/Scopolamine-Powerful-drug-growing-forests-Colombia-ELIMINATES-free-will.html

Other drugs have been suggested to educe a zombie like status such as TTX found in puffer fish that when the dose is administered properly, the used descends into a paralyzed state giving the appearance of death. The other is fed to the victim on awakening called Datura stramonium leaving them in a stupefying obedient delirium.
1930's
2013
Les Revenants - film where the dead rise and try to reintegrate into society. 2004 french film.
Haitian law reinforced the idea in peoples minds that zombies were real by publishing that it was illegal to preform the ritual to resurrect or posses as a zombie and shall be considered as murder regardless of the result.

Clairvius Narcisse was a man who is prominent when disusing zombies. He was pronounced dead in 1962 by different doctors. it was rumored that his brother a voodoo bokor poisoned him after a land dispute. 18 years later he wandered into a village and was recognized by his sister. he did not recognize her, and doctors suggested he had been kept sedated by different voodoo drugs. Some scientists and voodoo specialists see this as proof or voodoo drugging of zombies due to the Doctors verification.
Wade Davis work was never proved and his self indulgent style lost credit in the academic world. book the serpent and the rainbow.
"However, some of the "scientific mood" seems to have modified at least some of the plot lines. where previously the zombies had been created by voodoo magic, other reasons are now being found for their existence, and speculation with regards to germ warfare and biogenic weapons increase, the main origin for the 'walking dead' now tends to be some form of unknown disease." 159 field guide.

Every zombie film cashes in on the astonishment of seeing the re-animated dead. "It defies science, experience, and cultural taboos because the dead are not supposed to inhabit the realm of the living." 92 ZRU

Romero is the godfather o zombies but Lucio Fulci is of worthy notice with films such as 'Zombie' (1979) 'City of the living dead' (1980) and 'The Beyond' (1981) Fulci asks viewers to question the meaning of being alive. Film Zombie they do eat flesh.

"jonathan Penner, Steven Schneider and paul Duncan (2008 FIND) explain that [the zombie films of Fulci, romero and the various adaptations of the book I am Legend] are violent in the extreme - violating bodies, tearing people as they tear apart all sense of normalcy. Nothing is sacred, as there is obviously no god... they ask us to face ourselves at our worst - not just metaphorically as decaying, undead cannibals, but literally as a social decaying an cannibalism itself." 100 ZRU

Romeros zombies ask us to reflect on our society in terms of radical prejudice, materialism, military paranoia and social econimc. Fulci does not. his zombies prey on what is primitive, Religious commentary appears to be intrinsic but all religious associations are shed when the zombie invasion begins.
Gore can be so exaggerated it becomes laughable, however it is an important role in horror cinema as it breaks taboo.

Fulci's Zombies could be a mix of catholic and hatian theology. His zombies are more gorey than romeros they are less a metaphore and more designed to be the image of a zombie to scare. his zombies are to inflict pleasurable discgust and perhaps reflect on the idea of life after death.

"The zombie plague comes from modern civilization itself ad originates out of human concepts" 101 ZRU

Fulci attacks a more basic agenda, the loss of reason. Zombies are the shell of life and are driven to devour it. 102

Amando de ossarios' 'Blind Dead' Zombies are decaying not deteriorating. this Zombie figure, more than any other, represents death - not as something enevitable but suddenly pursuant and predatory. still slow moving zombies though. far more sinister than the previos zombies.

MORRIS DICKSTIN 1984 THE ATHETICS OF GORE, LOOK UP!




Day of the Dead is a mexican festival on the 1st and 2nd of November where the dead can return to the world. The goddess in charge of this is known as the lady of the bones or Santa Muerto. She only has the power to raise the dead for a day and is similar to a grim reaper.

Lithuanian:
Goddess Gilteine is the Lithuanian equivalent of the lady of the bones. she wears either all black or all white with a skull face and a lolling spiked tongue that was poisoned with disease, similar to the goddess Kali. She has the power to resurrect or grant life. when she allows the dead to return it is important to welcome the dead with food drink and entertainment or they could get violent.

China
There is 1 day where they celebrate ghost day, if they were good spiritual Brethren when Buried they can return as any form of animal or object. to celebrate the holidays with the family. There is also the festival Yue Laan (the day of the hungry ghosts) these are seen as cadavers returning to torment the living. offerings such as food is left at the door to stop them.

Japan
has a similar festival to celebrate and honor the dead in case they return to torment the living.
Living mummies was a practice in japan where buddists underwent a 3 step process of transformation and enlightenment which involved dehydrating the body and starving it for about 3000 days before being walled up and later displayed as holy relics with alleged powers.

country beliefs
eastern Europe
vampire folk law. romanians have 2 words: moroi and strigoi. Moroii means those that have returned from the dead with a purpose to visit or disrupt the living. usually harmless. there were a few days they could return the most prominent was st Georges eve. and the feast of the blessed dead. they were good spirits bit the devil would get jealous and send bad spirits to torment and confuse the living.

strigoi - were demonized cadavers to be avoided. they would get a taste for blood and become vampires. on the eve the bodies grave would be covered in blue flames and they would rise from the grave. To prevent this they would often used white horses to help identify the graves of the evil and exume the body and steak it to the ground so it couldn't rise.

Romanian folk law confuse the 2 above and believe both are to be avoided. they also believed that no matter their original hair color they returned with ginger hair and blue eyes.
Black stone: origins of the muslim religion. used to be white but turned black with the sin it absorbed. it is said that cadavers gather there to plot evil against the living.
Polish had a goddess called zwyie who had the power to recall death.

Priests of ancient israeli were only prepared to touch the dead body's of dearest kin, Nazitites made vows to never touch a dead body. the jews also give a quick burial either the day of the day after death reinforcing a fear of corpses. The prophets warning of divine path "Your corps shall be food for every bird of the air and animal of the earth, and there shall be no one to scare them away." encouraging fear of corpses and the need to bury quickly. "Has no burial [...] a still born is better off than he." with no popper burial the angels will not collect him. ZRU

"The bible in part seizes the imagination of the modern writers because of his acute consciousness of it as a body of founding texts, marking out one of the primary possibility of representing the human condition and the experience for all the eras of western culture that have followed antiquity. " 97 ZRU


conclusions
"The returning dead, therefore, appear in the lore and traditions of cultures all across the world, from ancient times to the present day. Their presents signals the belief that death is not the ultimate end, and that something lies beyond. They also give the assurance that humans are immortal and that they can, if need be, return to reassure-or perhaps to comfort or to advise-those whom they have left behind. They are also the last vestiges of vanished cultures and arcane beliefs, reminding subsequent generations of all that has gone before. And as such, they continue to haunt our minds-whether it be through continuing beliefs, in tales, or in celluloid form-and perhaps will do for many years to come." 198 field guide.
"Nobody knew what death was: was it,for instance, the end of all things and the end of an individuals involvement in the material world (as we believe today), or was it simply the process by which the individual passes from one reality to the next?" 201 field guide.
"If, as some ancient civilizations believed, it was merely a process of transfer from one sphere of existence to another, might that process be reversed...?" 201 field guide
"As civilizations began to come together, many of these beliefs persisted on the fringes of society, taking on definite and distinctive shapes, often terrifying or menacing aspect - the Draugr, the mummy, or the zombie." 203
The church of England found itself in a difficult position by putting so much emphasis on the afterlife that they could not deny the idea of the resurrected and so used good 'blessed' cadavers and bad 'demonic' cadavers to explain this. 203 (not quote)

Christians were not the only ones to embrace cadavers. West Africa, Egyptians and Eastern cultures all mention and incorporate them into there belief systems.

"Throughout the years, some of these beliefs, and often, frightening figures that embodied them, found their way into the fringes of mainstream westernized horror fiction and cinema, the zombie, the mummy, the zuveubie - to terrify readers and viewers just as old tales concerning the walking dead had done many centuries before" 203

Medical conditions such as catalepsy have strengthened the idea of resurrection giving the sufferer the appearance of death when little was know in medicine. in the 18th and 19th century the grave robbers cungered fear and horror story's in the minds of all who knew.

"In an age where science was gaining hold of these ideas and beliefs harked back to more primal fears and to an earlier era when the walking dead might very well have stalked the roads as soon as the sun went down." 204 Field guide.

Fear Zombies Are Us.

Cognitiist view of fear, created by Robert M Gordon, in his paper "fear" 1980 the theory developed by Wayne A Davis, describes different variety of fear. A propositional fear is the fear that it was, the fear that is has or the fear that it will become.

the
attitudinal condition
- what Davis calls the aversion component of fear - the fear that it will hurt me.
Fear requires uncertainty, that the harm might happen, which Davis calls the cognitive component.
Experiantal
fear is being in a state of fear. Symptoms include shaking, heart racing ect. Propositional fear does not always have these effects.
Reactive fear
, reacting to something due to fear.

"And as the cognitive account of fear is grounded in an uncertainty component, it seems reasonable to posit that the more uncertain the threat, the more pronounced the fear is." 15 ZRU

"When something resists classification - because it seems to belong to more than one catagory but comfortably in none, - Douglas argues we see it as impure, as an abomination." ZRU 16

The don't fit the common conception and therefore violated the common knowledge. page 17 check quote ZRU

"We are horrified by the image itself but we find pleasure in the revulsion aswell" 104 ZRU
The fear of becoming a zombie
"This fear, common throughout zombie fiction, seems to be a fear of becoming something else- Something
wrong.
Essentially it is the fear of becoming the object of horror. Your body being resurrected seems an illogicality and reasonable basis for fear as the zombie s not you and has no physiological connection for you. If, however, you are locked into the mind of the zombie with an uncontrollable will to eat flesh then it seems more reasonable. You have survived zombification to some degree but are being harmed by the transformation.

The fear of being controlled? slavery?

Bondeson 2002, Such a fear of burying someone alive existed up until the end of the 19th century that tubes wold be buried into the casket so the person inside could both breath and alert the night watchman with a bell. ZRU 64
Tebb, Vollum and Howden 1905) The word 'wake' literally came from the time after the newly dead, to watch them and check they would not wake up before burying them. this could have inspired Dracula and zombies. ZRU 63

"In 1968, with the release of Geroge Romero's
Night of the Living Dead,
the zombies infiltrated Western popular cluture with a vengeance. Since then, the zombie has continued to haunt the popular imagination. Scholars have examined how screen wites and directors have used the zombie to symbolize a wide range of fears - from the overt fear of possession and mind control, through fears of atomic radiation, to such modern concerns as mindless consumerism, meaningless existence and the social and individual impacts of drugs and mental illness. Current scholarship looks to the newest iteration of zombies in video games and online gaming worlds, a testament to the flexibility of the zombie metaphor: the zombie fills the need of gamers in these environments just as they have served to represent the fears of previous generations." ZRU 76

Marc Leverette 2008 "it may ... be the symbolic emptiness that gives them thier power; people can fill them with whatever fear they want" 203


Adaptation
"Known adaptations obviously function similarly to genres: they set up audience expectations [...] through a set of norms that guide our encounter with the adapting work we are experiencing. [...] What is intriguing is that, afterward, we often come to see the prior adapted work very differently as we compare it to the result of the adapter's creative and interpretive act." Linda Hutcheon (121) ZRU P89

"The resemblances i percive between the Bible and zombie fiction may be no more than coincidence, and we must all be caucious of fabricating literary parentage where non exists." 89 ZRU
Mimicking cultural inheritance Michael J. Gilmore RESEARCH
Into ideas
James Reither argues "The Zombie is arguably the most popular monster figure of the last 30 years of horror cinema. after the pioneer film 'Night of the Living Dead' (1968), the zombie has been the subject of, or critical component to hundreds of films." 100 ZRU
"Perhaps the ultimate horror Icon" 7 zombie holocaust.

Zombies now feature everywhere, in video games, cartoons, and adverts, even science: the fire ant that are impregnated with fly larvae exhibit 'zombie like' behavior. Moore 2009 p 100 ZRU
Zombies also invaded the music industry. JC penny had an advert where zombies ripped the clothes off people with the tag line, don't be a fashion victim. mini cooper also claimed to be zombie proof. Zombie film figures are available to collectors but are carefully marked not for children. crawling toys and boardgames. First zombie flash mob in 2001.




"City of the living dead' Watch

the priest hanging open the gates of hell. Zombies dont eat people. appocolyptic event. the zombies only commit purposles distruction and the focus is on uncertainty.

City of the dead, -> such a film shift in zombies athetics was fully exploted in later films such as Return of the living dead and near dark (1987)


The night of the living dead is a important transformation of the zombie as it was one of the first virus films 1968 George a. Romero P.151 field guide it inspired further films: Zombie holocaust, Zombie dawn blood for the zombie, the hunger and flesh eaters from the tomb. not all survive today.
Romero later returned to the subject with the film Dawn of the dead. 1978 with a 2004 remake it again was caused by a virus but on a larger scale to what we know as a zombie film today. and a sequel to the original Day of the dead. in 2005 he released land of the dead, a post apocalyptic style zombie film. and diary of the dead in 2008.
Zombie field guide had extensively researched the history of adapting zombies, however they are adapting once more and into more 'pretty' zombies with concessions.

Once a horror character has been established it is quickly absorbed into popular culture and will appear everywhere.

"And while the living dead have maintained their ability to terrify and horrify audiences- primarily because, unlike other horror archetypes, Zombies are a faceless mass that evoke our darkest fears about death (and more pointedly the dead returning to attack the living) - zombies have also become figures of fun." Zombie holocaust 217

"While other monsters have faded, the zombie seems as relevant as ever - perhaps even more so, given the increasingly uncerain world we live in, where the idea of humans being wiped out by a biological, nuclear or chemical attack seems ever more feasible - an apocolypse is at the back of everyone's mind." 224 Zombie holocaust



Everyone can do a zombie walk shout brains ans know that a blow to the head will kill them. but this is odd as they are not real?
Originaly, Zombies were not scary. and looked down on as a poor attempt and cheep. Zombies were in the lowest f the low, even to the fans and comic book fans. The most scary part of a zombie was the prospect of becoming one, and unless you were planning a trip to a Caribbean island this all seemed like an empty threat.
White Zombie Victor Halperin 1932

Inspired by Seabrooks book, the zombies were not scary or even dead, but under a spell. The zombies failed to evoke fear for another 30 years. borrowed set from dracula and terribly acted. the most scary part of the zombie was the prospect of becoming one, which was very unlikely.







The film received poor reviews, it was unsurprising and not scary, with zombies under mind control.
1940's
The ghost breakers 1940
first spoof of a zombie. mix of sharp comedy and thrills.

King of the Zombies Jean Yarbrough 1941
Described by critics as a low point for horror and cinema. The zombies were slow shuffling with an irrelevant plot. however, the black actor was a hit with the black audiance of the time and so inspired e film maker to make a sequel called revenge of the zombies in 1943

Voodoo Man 1944
the last poor attempt at a zombie movie by Banner Productions Monogram Pictures before the studios dropped the zombie.

I Walked with a Zombie Jacques Tourneur 1943
unsatisfying film.

Revenge of the Zombies Steve Sekely 1943

see above.

Zombies on Broadway (Loonies on Broadway) Gordon Dines & Gordon M. Douglas 1945
Comedy.
1950's
1960's
1970's
The sicence fiction took over in the 50's with aliens and UFO's being the most popular.

Zombies of the Stratosphere Fred C. Brannon 1952
12 part series, that actually had nothing to do with zombies as such.

Creature with the atomic brain 1955
the film was similar to the setup of a 1940's film but with a more science fiction feel to it.

Zombies of Mora Tau 1957
traditional voodoo zombies. the captain is shipwrecked and put under a zombie curse, the first underwater zombie, later seen in shock waves and zombie lake.

Voodoo Island 1957
about voodoo cursed slaves.

Invisible invaders 1959
Not a zombie film but could have influenced Romero with the aliens that took over the humans body's and the 'zombies' were considered some of the most sinister of the decade.

The Dead One (El Muerto) Barry Mahon 1961 [80] [76]
Doctor Blood's Coffin Sidney J. Furie 1961 [96] [93]
Santo vs. the Zombies (Invasion of the Zombies) Benito Alazraki 1962 [261] [257]
Tales of Terror Roger Corman 1962 [281] [278]
The Horror of Party Beach Del Tenney 1964 [139] [136]
I Eat Your Skin (Zombies) Del Tenney 1964 [156] [147]
The Incredibly Strange Creatures Who Stopped Living and Became Mixed-Up Zombies Ray Dennis Steckler 1964 [164] [155]
The Last Man on Earth (L'ultimo uomo della Terra) Ubaldo Ragona 1964 [172] [163]
Terror-Creatures from the Grave (5 tombe per un medium, Cemetery of the Living Dead) Massimo Pupillo 1965 [284] [280]
The Plague of the Zombies John Gilling 1966 [221] [210]
The Astro-Zombies Ted V. Mikels 1968 [13] [9]
Night of the Living Dead George A. Romero 1968 original [196][197][198] [185]



Tombs of the Blind Dead Amando de Ossorio 1971 [288] [284]
Baron Blood (Gli orrori del castello di Norimberga) Mario Bava 1972 [16] [12]
Blood of Ghastly Horror Al Adamson 1972 [33] [28]
Children Shouldn't Play with Dead Things Bob Clark 1972 [49] [44]
Messiah of Evil Willard Huyck & Gloria Katz 1972 [184] [175]
Curse of the Living Dead (Les Démoniaques) Jean Rollin 1973 [59] [54]
The Hanging Woman (Return of the Zombies) José Luis Merino 1973 [131] [129]
The Hidan of Maukbeiangjow
(Invasion of the Girl Snatchers, Kaspar and Prudence Laugh Till It Hurts at The Killers of the Zombie Plot: A Musical) Lee Jones 1973 aliens possess corpses [133] [131]
Horror Express (Pánico en el Transiberiano, Panic on the Trans-Siberian Express) Eugenio Martín 1973 [138] [135]
House of the Living Dead (Doctor Maniac) Ray Austin 1973 [148] [143]
Return of the Blind Dead Amando de Ossorio 1973 second film in Ossorio's Blind Dead series [245][246] [238]
Vengeance of the Zombies (La rebelión de las muertas) León Klimovsky 1973 [299] [295]
A Virgin Among the Living Dead Jesús Franco 1973 main character has visions of zombies [301][303] [299]

Dead of Night Bob Clark 1974 [79] [75]
Garden of the Dead John Hayes 1974 [121] [119]
The Ghost Galleon Amando de Ossorio 1974 [123] [121]
The House of Seven Corpses Paul Harrison 1974 [143][144] [139]
Let Sleeping Corpses Lie Jorge Grau 1974 [46][178] [168]
Sugar Hill Paul Maslansky 1974 [276] [273]
Night of the Seagulls Amando de Ossorio 1975 [199] [192]
Revenge of the Zombies (Gou hun jiang tou, Black Magic II) Ho Meng Hua 1976 [252] [247]
Shock Waves Ken Wiederhorn 1977 [267] [264]
Dawn of the Dead George A. Romero 1978 sequel to Night of the Living Dead [24] [58]
Les Raisins de la Mort (The Grapes of Death, Pesticide) Jean Rollin 1978 [176][177] [167]
Zombi 2 (Zombie Flesh-Eaters) Lucio Fulci 1979 an unlicensed sequel to Zombi (the Italian title of Dawn of the Dead) [318][24] [315]
Night of the living dead 1968
The rebirth of zombie popularity was due to the new horror film, night of the living dead. it reflected society with the uprisings in protest against war in Paris, UK and America. it represented the youth culture driving away the old attitudes.

"The spate of political assassination in America (both Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King 1968), the brutal Vietnam war being beamed into homes across the world, and the rise of the sniper, the mass murder and serial killer at the end of the decade made the old monsters seem outdated." 7 Holocaust

Romero films gain popularity in these times as the represented modern fears. "and zombie movies, with their unstoppable, expanding army of monsters that could not be reasoned with and who are acted without feeling or emotion, seemed to capture a feeling of mass helplessness." 7 Holocaust
Fear of death is universal the idea that the dead can rise has always been potent.
The word zombie is specific to hati. the western perception of voodoo is the result of fevered imagination and western religion propaganda than fact. Meaning that Christianity would twist the truth about voodoo to portray the competing faith in the worst light. 9 holocaust
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