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Ruminant vs Monogastric

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Ms. Deangelis

on 7 April 2011

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Transcript of Ruminant vs Monogastric

The organ that allows for bacterial and chemical breakdown of cellulose into starches and sugars. How?? it has a dense population of micro-organisms (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi).
Microbial fermentation= byproduct= carbon dioxide and methane
Why does the rumen have micro-organisms and not human stomach?? (acidity levels)
Storage- In some cattle have 100 to 120 kg of digesting material STOP I: RUMEN (Fermentation) VIDEO 1 VIDEO 2 STOP 2- The Reticulum (Fermentation) STOP 3- The Omasum (Recycler) STOP 4- The Abomasum (Acid Digestion) Papillae (1 cm in length)
Function: Where bacteria lives that breaks down fiber What is this? What is the difference?? What does it do? Recycles water and minerals such as sodium and phosphorus which return to the rumen through the saliva.
The omasum is a small organ with great absorption capacity.
It connects the rumen and the abomasum.
Capacity of about 10 liters. What does it do? The reticulum is a pump which helps bring boluses of feed back up to the mouth as cud. Unless the particles are small in size and dense, then they will move to the omasum. What does it do? Adds acid and digestive enzymes to break down the feed (proteins and lipids) that were not broken down in the rumen. When the nutrients are small enough, they are absorbed into the bloodstream. MOUTH
• Acid starts in the mouth. The only reason the acid is not acidic is because of buffers in the saliva (bicarbonate and phosphates) neutralize the acids. This neutralized acid is also in the rumen which is why ruminants can digest cellulose (fiber).
OR Think of it this way:
Saliva= Neutralize Acids= Neutral acidity in rumen=Digestive Microbes RUMINANT VS MONOGASTRIC
DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS DIET GROUP 1 Hardware Disease Answer: Cows can get hardware, such as nails and pieces
of wire accidentally in their feed, caught in their reticulum.
This metal causes abscesses in the cow’s stomach and can
puncture the side of the stomach, enter her heart and
kill her.
Treatment: To prevent hardware from hurting the cow, she
can be given a magnet. The magnet will collect the pieces
of metal. The magnet stays in the cow’s stomach, the
recticulum for the rest of her life.
GROUP 2 GROUP 3 Acidosis of Bloating GROUP 4 Gallstones GROUP 5 Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Answer Card
One of the problems with having such a complex stomach is that it can get twisted. A twisted stomach is called displaced abomasum (DA). The most common displacement occurs when the abomasum gets trapped on the left side of the cow between the rumen and the abdominal wall.
Treatment Card
• Conservative treatment: This involves casting and rolling the cow and manipulating the abomasum so that it returns to its normal position. This can be effective, if done early but about 50% relapse.
• Surgery: Many surgical techniques have been used some involving opening both flanks.
Displaced Abosamum (DA) Grain, Corn- High in carbohydrates

Forage (grass, hay, straw, legumes, or silage) high in cellulose and protein Answer Card
Acidosis or bloating is often associated with a
shift from a foragebased (fiber) diet to a excessive
consumption of carbohydrates (grain) or starch (corn).
This lower the pH in the rumen=lactic acid build up.
The rumen becomes very acidic and if the cow cannot belch
(burp) there is a build up of pressure in the rumen. It expands
and puts pressure on the lungs and diaphragm.
The cow can actually die from suffocation!

Note: A healthy rumen has a pH of 6 to 7.
Treatment: Focus on a balanced diet Answer Card
The gallbladder is a small organ located on the right side
of the abdomen, just below the liver. The gallbladder's
main function is to store bile (made by the liver) and
secrete it into the small intestine to help digestion.
Bile is made of water, cholesterol, fats, bile salts
(break up fat). Gallstones form if the bile contains too much
cholesterol, bile salts, or bilirubin.
Treatment: surgery or dissolving treatments (pill or injection) Treatment
The following lifestyle changes can help the symptoms of GERD or even prevent the condition:
• quitting smoking
• avoiding alcohol
• losing weight if you are overweight
• eating small meals
Answer Card
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a disorder that results from stomach acid moving backward from the stomach into the esophagus. GERD usually happens because the lower esophageal sphincter (muscular valve where the esophagus joins the stomach)
opens at the wrong time or does not close properly.
Its like a bag that doesn’t shut properly and leaks. Stomach
acid ends up in the esophogus and it causes a frequent
burning sensation of heartburn, inflammation and pain.
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