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Application of Educational Technology

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deo bicua

on 10 August 2015

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Transcript of Application of Educational Technology

For communicators, especially teachers, it is important to have knowledge of the domains of human learning as a guide to determine whether your communication/teaching objectives cover an appropriate range of skills and to decide the sequence of skills you wish to impart.
Student Assessment purposes:
Formal and Informal Assessment
Student Assessment
Application of Educational Technology
Different Distinctions of Assessment
Domains of Learning
The 3 main levels of skills inclusive of the kinds of simple or complex human actions are:
Cognitive Level
(Knowledge, ‘Head’)
Affective Level
(Attitudes, ‘Heart’)
Motor skills Level
(Skills, ‘Hands’)
Domains
Cognitive
involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills
the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills
Affective
includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitude
Motor Skills
includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas
development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution
Evaluation
ability to pass judgement on something base on given criteria.
Synthesis
ability to put parts together to form a new whole.
Analysis
ability to break down material into component part so that its organizational structure may be understood.
Application
the ability to use learned material in new concrete situation.
Comprehension
ability to grasp the meaning of material.
indicates the lowest form of understanding.
Knowledge
recall, remembering of prior learned materials in terms of facts, concepts, theories and principles.
the lowest cognitive level.

Characterization by a value or value set
The individual has a value system that has controlled his or her behavior for a sufficiently long time for him or her to develop a characteristic “life-style.”
Receiving
refers to the student's willingness to attend to particular phenomena of stimuli (classroom activities, textbook, music, etc.).
Learning outcomes in this area range from the simple awareness that a thing exists to selective attention on the part of the learner. Receiving represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the affective domain.
Responding
refers to active participation on the part of the student.
Learning outcomes in this area may emphasize acquiescence in responding willingness to respond (voluntarily reads beyond assignment), or satisfaction in responding (reads for pleasure or enjoyment).
The higher levels of this category include those that stress the seeking out and enjoyment of particular activities.
Valuing
concerned with the worth or value a student attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior
Learning outcomes in this area are concerned with behavior that is consistent and stable enough to make the value clearly identifiable
Organization
concerned with bringing together different values, resolving conflicts between them, and beginning the building of an internally consistent value system
Learning outcomes may be concerned with the conceptualization of a value (recognizes the responsibility of each individual for improving human relations) or with the organization of a value system (develops a vocational plan that satisfies his or her need for both economic security and social service)
Perception
use of sense organs to guide motor activities
Set
refers to the readiness to take a particular type of action
Guided Response
concerned with the early stages in learning complex skills.
imitation and trial and error are some of the ways of doing
Mechanism
responses have become habitual
performance skills are with ease and confidence
Complex overt Responses
skillfull performance and with complex movement patterns
Origination
refers to creating new movements patterns to fit the situation
Creativity is evident
Adaptation
skill well developed that the ability to modify is very easy
Informal and Formal
Referencing (criterion-referenced, norm-referenced, and ipsative)
Objective and Subjective
Formative and Summative
Summative and Formative
generally carried out at the end of a course or project
In an educational setting, summative assessments are typically used to assign students a course grade In an educational setting,
Assessment of learning is generally summative in nature and intended to measure learning outcomes and report those outcomes to students, parents, and administrators
Summative assessments are evaluative
generally carried out throughout a course or project
formative assessment might be a teacher (or peer) or the learner, providing feedback on a student's work, and would not necessarily be used for grading purposes.
Assessment for learning is generally formative in nature and is used by teachers to consider approaches to teaching and next steps for individual learners and the class.
Formative assessments are diagnostic.
the process of documenting , usually in measurable terms, knowledge , skills , attitudes and beliefs .
Assessment
can focus on the individual learner, the learning community (class, workshop, or other organized group of learners), the institution, or the educational system as a whole basically the process of gathering information about the student’s learning; then analyzing and interpreting them.
Self-assessment
is a form of diagnostic assessment which involves students assessing themselves.
Other assessments related to Formative and Summative
Diagnostic assessment
common form of formative assessment that measures a student's current knowledge and skills for the purpose of identifying a suitable program of learning.
Forward-looking assessment




asks those being assessed to consider themselves in hypothetical future situations
Performance-based assessment




is similar to summative assessment, as it focuses on achievement. It is often aligned with the standards-based education reform and outcomes-based education movement
Objective and Subjective Assessment
A form of questioning which has a single answer.
Objective Assessment
Subjective Assessment
A form of questioning which may have more than on correct answer
Multiple Choice Test
Extended Response Questions
Formal Assessment
Informal Assessment
given a numerical score or grade based on student performance.
Does not contribute to a student’s final grade.
EXAMPLE:
Written document such as a test, quiz or paper
EXAMPLE:
Observation, inventories, checklists, rating scales, rubrics, participation, performance portfolio assessment, peer and self evaluation and discussion
Formal and Informal Assessment
test papers
rating scales
checklist
rubrics
Referencing Assessment
Criterion-Referenced Assessment
Criterion-referenced assessment typically using a criterion-referenced test, as the name implies, occurs when candidates are measured against defined (and objective) criteria.
Criterion-referenced assessment is often, but not always, used to establish a person's competence (whether s/he can do something). The best known example is the driving test, when learner drivers are measured against a range of explicit criteria (such as "Not endangering other road users).
Norm-referenced Assessment
Norm-referenced assessment is typically using a norm-referenced test, is not measured against defined criteria.
This type of assessment is relative to the student body undertaking the assessment. It is effectively a way of comparing students. The IQ test and entrance tests are the best known example of norm-referenced assessment.
Ipsative Assessment
Ipsative assessment is self comparison either in the same domain over time, or comparative to other domains within the same student.
Purposes of
Assessment
Research
ASSESSMENT RESULTS CAN ALSO BE USED AS A SOURCE OF VERY USEFUL DATA IN A WIDE RANGE TOPICS IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
Student Feedback
. ONE IMPORTANT PURPOSE OF ASSESSMENT IS TO HAVE OBJECTIVE INFORMATION THAT CAN BE USED TO COMMUNICATE TO THE LEARNER HIS CURRENT LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE.
Effectiveness of the Program
ASSESSMENT CAN ALSO PROVIDE DATA ABOUT HOW A PARTICULAR CURRICULUM OR PROGRAM IS EEFECTIVE IN MEETING GOALS
Placement
BASED ON THE RESULTS OF ASSESSMENT, THE LEARNER CAN BE PLACED IN THE BEST LEARNING ENVIRONMENT WHERE HE CAN BETTER LEARN AND DEVELOP.
Diagnosis
ASSESSMENT IS USED TO DETERMINE ANY SPECIAL LEARNING NEED THAT A LEARNER MAY HAVE
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