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Application of Educational Technology
Transcript of Application of Educational Technology
Student Assessment purposes:
Formal and Informal Assessment
Application of Educational Technology
Different Distinctions of Assessment
Domains of Learning
The 3 main levels of skills inclusive of the kinds of simple or complex human actions are:
Motor skills Level
involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills
the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills
includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitude
includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas
development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution
ability to pass judgement on something base on given criteria.
ability to put parts together to form a new whole.
ability to break down material into component part so that its organizational structure may be understood.
the ability to use learned material in new concrete situation.
ability to grasp the meaning of material.
indicates the lowest form of understanding.
recall, remembering of prior learned materials in terms of facts, concepts, theories and principles.
the lowest cognitive level.
Characterization by a value or value set
The individual has a value system that has controlled his or her behavior for a sufficiently long time for him or her to develop a characteristic “life-style.”
refers to the student's willingness to attend to particular phenomena of stimuli (classroom activities, textbook, music, etc.).
Learning outcomes in this area range from the simple awareness that a thing exists to selective attention on the part of the learner. Receiving represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the affective domain.
refers to active participation on the part of the student.
Learning outcomes in this area may emphasize acquiescence in responding willingness to respond (voluntarily reads beyond assignment), or satisfaction in responding (reads for pleasure or enjoyment).
The higher levels of this category include those that stress the seeking out and enjoyment of particular activities.
concerned with the worth or value a student attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior
Learning outcomes in this area are concerned with behavior that is consistent and stable enough to make the value clearly identifiable
concerned with bringing together different values, resolving conflicts between them, and beginning the building of an internally consistent value system
Learning outcomes may be concerned with the conceptualization of a value (recognizes the responsibility of each individual for improving human relations) or with the organization of a value system (develops a vocational plan that satisfies his or her need for both economic security and social service)
use of sense organs to guide motor activities
refers to the readiness to take a particular type of action
concerned with the early stages in learning complex skills.
imitation and trial and error are some of the ways of doing
responses have become habitual
performance skills are with ease and confidence
Complex overt Responses
skillfull performance and with complex movement patterns
refers to creating new movements patterns to fit the situation
Creativity is evident
skill well developed that the ability to modify is very easy
Informal and Formal
Referencing (criterion-referenced, norm-referenced, and ipsative)
Objective and Subjective
Formative and Summative
Summative and Formative
generally carried out at the end of a course or project
In an educational setting, summative assessments are typically used to assign students a course grade In an educational setting,
Assessment of learning is generally summative in nature and intended to measure learning outcomes and report those outcomes to students, parents, and administrators
Summative assessments are evaluative
generally carried out throughout a course or project
formative assessment might be a teacher (or peer) or the learner, providing feedback on a student's work, and would not necessarily be used for grading purposes.
Assessment for learning is generally formative in nature and is used by teachers to consider approaches to teaching and next steps for individual learners and the class.
Formative assessments are diagnostic.
the process of documenting , usually in measurable terms, knowledge , skills , attitudes and beliefs .
can focus on the individual learner, the learning community (class, workshop, or other organized group of learners), the institution, or the educational system as a whole basically the process of gathering information about the student’s learning; then analyzing and interpreting them.
is a form of diagnostic assessment which involves students assessing themselves.
Other assessments related to Formative and Summative
common form of formative assessment that measures a student's current knowledge and skills for the purpose of identifying a suitable program of learning.
asks those being assessed to consider themselves in hypothetical future situations
is similar to summative assessment, as it focuses on achievement. It is often aligned with the standards-based education reform and outcomes-based education movement
Objective and Subjective Assessment
A form of questioning which has a single answer.
A form of questioning which may have more than on correct answer
Multiple Choice Test
Extended Response Questions
given a numerical score or grade based on student performance.
Does not contribute to a student’s final grade.
Written document such as a test, quiz or paper
Observation, inventories, checklists, rating scales, rubrics, participation, performance portfolio assessment, peer and self evaluation and discussion
Formal and Informal Assessment
Criterion-referenced assessment typically using a criterion-referenced test, as the name implies, occurs when candidates are measured against defined (and objective) criteria.
Criterion-referenced assessment is often, but not always, used to establish a person's competence (whether s/he can do something). The best known example is the driving test, when learner drivers are measured against a range of explicit criteria (such as "Not endangering other road users).
Norm-referenced assessment is typically using a norm-referenced test, is not measured against defined criteria.
This type of assessment is relative to the student body undertaking the assessment. It is effectively a way of comparing students. The IQ test and entrance tests are the best known example of norm-referenced assessment.
Ipsative assessment is self comparison either in the same domain over time, or comparative to other domains within the same student.
ASSESSMENT RESULTS CAN ALSO BE USED AS A SOURCE OF VERY USEFUL DATA IN A WIDE RANGE TOPICS IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
. ONE IMPORTANT PURPOSE OF ASSESSMENT IS TO HAVE OBJECTIVE INFORMATION THAT CAN BE USED TO COMMUNICATE TO THE LEARNER HIS CURRENT LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE.
Effectiveness of the Program
ASSESSMENT CAN ALSO PROVIDE DATA ABOUT HOW A PARTICULAR CURRICULUM OR PROGRAM IS EEFECTIVE IN MEETING GOALS
BASED ON THE RESULTS OF ASSESSMENT, THE LEARNER CAN BE PLACED IN THE BEST LEARNING ENVIRONMENT WHERE HE CAN BETTER LEARN AND DEVELOP.
ASSESSMENT IS USED TO DETERMINE ANY SPECIAL LEARNING NEED THAT A LEARNER MAY HAVE