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Transcript of History
Impact and Napoleonic Wars on Europe and Latin America
Causes and Effects
Compare n' Contrast
American and French Revolutions
February and October Revolutions of 1917
Marissa ~ Madison ~ Natalie ~ Lisa ~ Alex
Major Turning Points: 1750-1914
Influence of Ideas
Separation of powers
Idea of independent and co-equal branches of government and a system of checks and balances derives from the work of the French political and social philosopher, Baron de Montesquieu presented in The Spirit of Laws and influenced the American founding fathers to establish a government with three branches-legislative, executive, and judicial.
Checks and balances
Measures designed to prevent any one branch of government from dominating the others were incorporated in the newly formed government of the United States.
A political philosophy proposing the idea that an individual has the right to act according to his or her own. Individual liberty was specifically ensured in the Bill of Rights.
An idea that each individual is subject to the same laws, with no individual or group having special legal privileges was reflected in the Napoleonic Code of Laws, yet inequalities remained in both the United States and France.
A political form of government characterized by either direct rule by the people (direct democracy) or by elected representatives of the people (representative democracy).
· Both the United States and France established republic forms of government.
Unit 7 - Industrialization and Imperialism
The Industrial Revolution is considered to have
in England in the 1780's, starting
the application of Steam Power to
coal mining and textile industries
Loss of forests
(used for building ships) led to increasing dependency on coal which resulted in an increased use of coal and mechanization of the industry.
roads and canals
, along with
for investment made England favorable for industrialization
Increased mechanization and inventions became available to all.
developed and eventually new legislation was passed to
Expansion of civil liberties as lower classes and
women demanded suffrage
and family life was altered.
Revolutionary leaders in both were inspired by Enlightenment
Both resulted in expanded political
to more people
Both served to
other revolutions and independence movements
American Revolution was an
, while the French Revolution was a
aimed at creating
social, economic and political changes
American Revolution lead to
from the colonial power and the French Revolution resulted in profound
political, economic and social changes
The influence of the American an French Revolutions on Latin America
The Scientific Revolution started in the 1600's. Natural philosophers had produced new
to rudimentary questions about our world. Age-old questions
about astronomy and physics
had been looked at through whole new perspectives, and answered. The
Passage of Enclosure Laws
because they forced farmers out of business and replaced them with machines.
-continued the Wars of the French Revolution
-Great Britain and France fought for European supremacy
-The U.S. tried to stay neutral during this period, but eventually became involved in the conflict, leading to the War of 1812
--Bonaparte seized power in 1799 after overthrowing the French revolutionary government
-In 1802, Napoleon ended ten years of warfare with Great Britain under the Peace of Amiens
-He used this to attempt to crush the Haitian Revolution, but the army he sent was defeated
-The loss of Haiti made Louisiana undesirable, and with war again on the horizon, Napoleon agreed to the Louisiana Purchase in 1803
-Britain declared war on France in 1803, and remained at war for over a decade
-From 1803 to 1806, the United States succeeded in remaining neutral, but suffered from impressment, British seizure of British-born naturalized U.S. citizens into the British navy
-President Jefferson made a treaty to free American sailors, but it never got to the Senate
1806- Berlin Decree (no trade with Britain)
Blockade of French- Controlled Europe (British navy stole French trade ships)
1807- Milan Decree (Napoleon is very mad at England)
-In 1807 the H.M.S. Leopard was bombarded in search of British navy deserters
-Jefferson responded with an embargo on all foreign trade in an effort to weaken the British economy.
-The U.S. economy was heavily dependent on trade with Britain
-The British economy was not strongly affected by the embargo
-In early 1809 Jefferson replaced the embargo with the Non-Intercourse Act, which allowed trade with other nations except Britain and France. This act was also impossible to enforce
The French colonial government in Haiti had sent men to fight in the American Revolution and they returned with ideas about how to change Haitian society.
Civil war broke out between soldiers from the American Revolution and the French authorities. During this,a slave revolt occurred (in 1791). French troops were sent in 1801, but thy all died from yellow fever so the slaves got independence.
Revolutionary leaders in Latin America, such as Simon Bolivar were inspired by the ideals of the Enlightenment and the successes of the American and French revolutions.
In 1810 the French governor of Venezuela appointed by Napoleon was ejected from power and Simon Bolivar was appointed governor.
· Although Bolivar was part of the privileged creole upper class, influenced by the ideas of Rousseau he established a national congress and declared independence from Spain.
· Bolivar realized that the success of the revolt was dependent on the support of the mixed-race classes of Latin Americans. He promised to fight for rights for the lower classes and to emancipate the slaves.
· Bolivar hoped to create a united South America modeled after the United States, but regional animosities and geographic barriers kept this from happening.
·The wide social and economic gap between the Third Estate (peasants and commoners) the First Estate (the Catholic clergy) and the Second Estate (the aristocratic nobility).
·Economic recession, an unfair tax code, famine, and debt contributed to economic failure in France.
·Absolute monarch Louis XVI’s inept leadership failed to address growing social and economic problems and his opulent lifestyle reflected the wide social gaps in France.
·A growing middle class was increasingly frustrated by not having any political power, yet had wealth and education.
·Enlightenment ideas influenced thinking about fair government, equal treatment of citizens, civil rights and separation of governmental powers.
·Compared to the causes of the American
Anti-Bolshevik sentiment ran high and a Civil War erupted in opposition of the communist take-over.
In spite of opposition to communism, threats to Russia by Allies at the end of World War I unified Russians as they sought to defend their homeland- nationalism.
By 1921, with Lenin firmly in power he introduced his New Economic Policy (NEP) which retained some capitalist aspects renamed Russia the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
Imperialism is the domination by a country of political, economic, or cultural life of another country. European empires were created that stretched around the world. Drawing political borders that divided tribal lands and created rivalries. Disruption of traditional cultures. English and French cultural diffusion to the English colonies. Railroads, dams, roads were being constructed. Some colonial areas were stripped of resources. Competition between European powers that resulted in World War I in the 19th century. Colonial conflicts such as the Sepoy Mutiny, Boer War, Opium Wars, and Boxer Rebellion fostered a dependent status for the colonies that made post independence stability difficult. Environment degradation as natural resources were extracted and depleted. Large population in Europe migrated to colonies. Long lasting resentments between the colonized peoples and the colonizers
·The French Revolution abolished the monarchy in France, yet a monarchy was reestablished for a time in the 19th century.
·Under Napoleon’s reign France was modernized with a Civil Law Code (the Napoleonic Code), public education and a Bank of France but was not considered democratic.
·Napoleon restored relations with the Catholic Church.
·One of the most profound effects of the French Revolution was the promotion of nationalism.
·Both the American and the French Revolutions sparked revolutionary movements in Latin America.
~ Development ~
Democratic- Republican Government
The enlightenment was an intellectual movement concentrated in France during the 1700s. A group of philosophers began to study human society. They developed rational laws to describe social behavior and applied their findings in support of human rights, limited government and liberal economic theories. These new ideas included
separation of powers
and challenge the notion of
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documents' political and legal ideas
Jude0-Christian Legal Traditions
·The Ten Commandments served as the basis of Judeo-Christian legal authority and morality.
English Civil War
In January 1649 Charles I was executed for ignoring the limitations of power imposed on the English monarch and ended the English Civil War (1642-1649) and marked the start of the Commonwealth, the English republic.
In 1660, the monarch in England was restored by power was shared with Parliament.
Age of Enlightenment during the 1700s
An intellectual movement concentrated in France during the 1700s. A group of philosophers the rigors of scientific inquiry to study human society. They developed rational laws to describe social behavior and applied their findings in support of human rights, limited government and liberal economic theories. These new ideas included separation of powers in government, individual rights, and popular sovereignty and challenge the notion of divine right.
Classical Greece and Rome
City-state of Athens first to create democracy
Rome was founded as a republic in 509 BC with three branches of government
·Social thinkers expanded the examination of the physical world done by scientists and explored questions about the nature of government and about the power and authority of rulers.
·Social critics introduced the idea of a social contract to counter the idea of divine right and the absolutism of monarchs.
·Revolutions in Europe led to greater political representation and limited government
·Independence movements in the American colonies and Latin America
·Growth of nationalism as a powerful political and cultural force in Europe
·Shift in a world balance of power resulting in global dominance of Europe
The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) is best known for his political thought, and deservedly so. His vision of the world is strikingly original and still relevant to contemporary politics. His main concern is the problem of social and political order: how human beings can live together in peace and avoid the danger and fear of civil conflict. He poses stark alternatives: we should give our obedience to an unaccountable sovereign (a person or group empowered to decide every social and political issue). Otherwise what awaits us is a “state of nature” that closely resembles civil war – a situation of universal insecurity, where all have reason to fear violent death and where rewarding human cooperation is all but impossible.
In his philosophy, based on skepticism and rationalism, he was indebted to Locke as well as to Montaigne and Bayle. Despite Voltaire's passion for clarity and reason, he frequently contradicted himself. Thus he would maintain in one place. That man's nature was as unchangeable as that of animals and would express elsewhere his belief in progress and the gradual humanization of society through the action of the arts, sciences, and commerce. In politics he advocated reform but had a horror of the ignorance and potential fanaticism of people and the violence of revolution.
Worker strikes, food shortages and huge losses in World War I culminate in 1917 causing Czar Nicholas II to abdicate the throne
A provisional government was established and some liberal reforms were introduced
Local soviets (councils of workers/peasants and soldiers) wanted Russia out of World War I, economic stability, and land reform
Political party that most attracted the soviets was the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin
In the fall of 1917 Vladimir Lenin and his followers, most notably military leader Leon Trotsky, overthrew the provisional government.
Ongoing resentment at the cruel treatment of peasants by patricians, poor working conditions experienced by city workers in the fledgling industrial economy
A growing sense of political and social awareness of the lower orders in general (democratic ideas were reaching Russia from the West and being touted by political activists). Dissatisfaction of the proletarian lot was further compounded by food shortages and military failures.
In 1905 Russia experienced humiliating losses —further dividing Nicholas II from his people. Widespread strikes, riots and the famous mutiny on the Battleship Potemkin ensued.
· The concept that political power rests with the people who create and can alter and abolish government. The voice of the people is heard through voting and free participation in government. Popular sovereignty is a characteristic of democratic government, and a basic principle of the American system of government.
The inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, as well as freedom of speech, religion, and the press. In the United States, these and other human rights are protected in the Bill of Rights.
An idea that the basic principles and laws of a government should be organized and administered through compliance with a written or unwritten constitution. The constitution effectively restrains the powers of the government and guarantees certain rights to the people, both the French and the Americans created constitutions.
Strong identification of a group of individuals with a nation and belief that one’s nation is superior to other nation-states
· Associated with the belief that an ethnic group has a right to statehood
· Manifested in the identification of a national culture based on collective identities - common language, common religion, common history
· Sometimes reactionary, calling for a return to a national past, and sometimes for the expulsion of foreigners
· Supported by the use of national flags, anthems, and other symbols of national identity
· Nationalism unified the French to resist the invasion of the Prussians during the French Revolution. And unified the former British colonists to an allegiance to the newly formed United States.
"-cracy" = government
-When the government is operated under the power of God or another supernatural being
- form of government in which the monarch exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state and head of government and is not restricted by a constitution.
-transmission of power is through heredity and marriage
-A political form of government characterized by either direct rule by the people (direct democracy) or by elected representatives of the people (representative democracy).
- Both the United States and France established republic forms of government.
-a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch
-a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few
Limited Monarchy (Constitutional Monarchy
-a form of democratic government in which a nonpolitical monarch acts as head of state within the boundaries of a constitution
- a monarchy that is limited by laws and a constitution
- a centralized government that does not tolerate parties of differing opinion and that exercises dictatorial control over many aspects of life
Byzantine ruler Justinian codified the many legal decrees and traditions of the Romans, preserving and pass on Roman legal traditions.
Hammurabi’s Code of Laws introduced the idea that laws should regulate societies.
The English Bill of Rights
· First government document to explain the individual rights of citizens
· A document that clearly stated the limits of royal power
Locke proposed a radical conception of political philosophy deduced from the principle of self-ownership and the right to own property, which in turn is based on his famous claim that a man earns ownership over a resource when he mixes his labour with it. Government, he argued, should be limited to making the life and property of its citizens secure, and is only necessary because in reality, various problems arise that would make life more insecure than under the protection of no one. Locke is also renown for his writings on toleration in which he explained the right to freedom of conscience and religion, and for his criticism of hereditary monarchy. After his death, his mature political philosophy leant support to the British Whig party and its principles, to the Age of Enlightenment, and to the development of the separation of the State and Church in the American Constitution as well as to the rise of human rights theories in the Twentieth Century.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
· The French document that stated the revolutionary ideas of its citizens and included Enlightenment ideas and ideas from the US Declaration of Independence.
· Truly only applied to men and did not offer rights to women.
The U.S. Constitution
· The document that explains the formation and laws of the United States government
· A model for other governments that declared independence and wanted to create a democratic government (Mexico, Vietnam)
The Declaration of Independence
· A document which outlined the grievances of American colonists and detailed their reasons for wanting independence.
· Inspired the French to write the Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
· It encouraged other colonies to declare their independence (Mexican Independence) or state the grievances of their nation to force change (French Revolution)
· First government document to limit the power of a monarch
· The Magna Carta established the idea that the king’s power could be limited and gave rights to the nobles.
The Frenchman wrote some of the most argumentative pieces against philosophy and its role in scholastic theology ever written. A closer reading of Calvin’s great work, the Institutes of the Christian Religion, along with his commentaries and treatises demonstrates that instead of denying the importance of philosophy, Calvin generally seeks to set philosophy in what he regards as its proper place. His vehemence stems from his belief that the rationalism of some of the scholastics had displaced God’s wisdom, most securely found in the work of the Holy Spirit in the scriptures, as the pinnacle for knowledge of the divine.
The Ten Commandments
established the idea that God had the ultimate authority over people.
The political philosophy of Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), along with the broader philosophical teaching of which it is part, stands at the crossroads between the Christian gospel and the Aristotelian political doctrine that was, in Aquinas’ time, newly discovered in the Western world. In fact, Aquinas’ whole developed system is often understood to be simply a modification of Aristotelian philosophy in light of the Christian gospel and with special emphasis upon those questions most relevant to Christianity, such as the nature of the divine, the human soul, and morality. This generalization would explain why Aquinas seems to eschew, even neglect, the subject of politics. Unlike his medieval Jewish and Islamic counterparts, Aquinas does not have to reconcile Aristotelianism with a concrete political and legal code specified in the sacred writings of his religion. As far as he is concerned, God no longer requires people to live according to the judicial precepts of the Old Law and so the question of formulating a comprehensive Christian political teaching that is faithful to biblical principles loses it urgency if not its very possibility. Unlike Judaism and Islam, Christianity does not involve specific requirements for conducting civil society.
Industrialization created wealth and technology as well as demand for raw materials and new markets. Nationalism produced competition between European nations for land, trade ports, and naval bases. Missionaries hoped to convert people to Christianity.
Social thinkers expanded the examination of the physical world done by scientists and explored questions about the nature of government and about the power and authority of rulers.
Social critics introduced the idea of a social contract to counter the idea of divine right and the absolutism of monarchs.
Revolutions in Europe led to greater political representation and limited government
Independence movements in the American colonies and Latin America
Growth of nationalism as a powerful political and cultural force in Europe
Shift in a world balance of power resulting in global dominance of Europe
·Resentment over the imposition of new taxes on the American colonists -Stamp Act (1765) and the Tea Act (1773) - who were used to self government and felt they lacked representation in the British Parliament. “No taxation without representation.”
·The colonial merchant middle class desired to better themselves and wanted economic freedom from Britain’s mercantalist policies.
·Within the colonies there was a growing sense of patriotism and a national identity.
·Enlightenment philosophies influenced the leaders of the American Revolution.
·Tensions between colonists and the crown rapidly deteriorated following the Boston Tea Party. War broke out on April 19, 1775 at Lexington and Concord.
·In 1776 American colonists issued the Declaration of Independence, which reflected the role the Enlightenment had in the American Revolution by including Locke’s ideas about natural rights. Jefferson adapted these to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
·After the Continental Army had suffered defeat after defeat, the French in 1777 committed monetary aid, weapons, ships and soldiers to the American cause.
·In 1781 French and American troops cornered the core of the British army and accepted the surrender of General George Cornwallis.
·The role of the Enlightenment was again evident in the ideas of the Enlightenment, such as separation of powers, checks and balances and individual rights which were incorporated into the US Constitution.
·The founding fathers also included a Bill of Rights in the US Constitution modeled after the one created during the Glorious Revolution in England.
·In the Bill of Rights the first amendment insures religious freedom and prohibits the establishment of a state religion.
·The Glorious Revolution had also established the idea of a ruler following a written constitution that granted protection of the people’s rights. The US Constitution establishing that the United States of America as a constitutional republic.
·Louis XVI’s request for a meeting of the three French estates created optimism for change among the majority Third Estate. However it became apparent that the First and Second Estates would still retain power when all three estates were ordered to meet separately.
·In a separate meeting of the Third Estate, a new assembly with a majority of members representing middle class was created. The assembly published a Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen in the summer of 1789 based on Enlightenment ideas and the American Declaration of Independence.
·On July 14, 1789 the French Revolution began when peasants stormed the Bastille, a political prison. Peasants also seized manors in an attempt to gain land and establish their equality under the law.
·In 1791 the National Assembly ratified a new constitution, establishing a constitutional monarchy in France. Peasants were freed from serfdom and the power of the aristocracy diminished as a result. A strong parliament was established which limited the power of the king.
·The invasion of Austrian and Prussian troops in support of monarchy and continued unrest led radical French leaders to call for a new government and a new constitution in the fall of 1792.
·Under the new constitution the monarchy was abolished and a new ruling body the National Convention was established to rule over the new French Republic and the power of the Catholic Church was severely curtailed.
·The National Convention quickly imprisoned the royal family and in 1793 Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette were beheaded.
·In response to foreign threats to the new French republic the Committee of Public Safety was created
·In a claim that the committee was eliminating the enemies of the republic the Reign of Terror ensued. Between the summer of 1793-1794 between 30,000 and 50,000 people were killed, beheaded by the guillotine. Eventually the committee overthrew Robespierre ending the wholesale terror.
·Rule of France fell to a more moderate government known as the Directory which attempted to restore stability.
·The Directory was overthrown in 1799 and power was seized by the popular military leader Napoleon Bonaparte.
Presentation by team
Blackstone was the great Eighteenth Century English legal scholar whose philosophy and writings were infused with Judeo-Christian principles. The Ten Commandments are at the heart of Blackstone's philosophy. Blackstone taught that man is created by God and granted fundamental rights by God. Man’s law must be based on God’s law. Our Founding Fathers referred to Blackstone more than to any other English or American authority. Blackstone’s great work,Commentaries on the Laws of England, was basic to the U. S. Constitution.
Sir William Blackstone
Jefferson is best known as the leading "classical liberal" in American history. As the author of the Declaration of Independence, he outlined the political principles that launched the new nation. As the framer of the Virginia Statute for Religious Liberty, he spearheaded early efforts to separate church and state. As president of the United States, he fostered the fledgling country's continental expansion, setting the stage for America to become a global power. Jefferson was America's first life-centered philosopher.
But Jefferson was much more than a philosopher and statesman of freedom. His appetite for the facts of nature (including human nature) is reflected in his only book, Notes on the State of Virginia, which contains exhaustive observations on every aspect of his state's natural and social environment: its flora, fauna, populations, mountains, rivers, geology, manufactures, and laws.
Montesquieu was one of the great political philosophers of the Enlightenment. Insatiably curious and mordantly funny, he constructed an account of the various forms of government, the causes that made them what they were, and that advanced or constrained their development. He used this account to explain how governments might be preserved from corruption. He saw despotism, in particular, as a standing danger for any government not already despotic, and argued that it could best be prevented by a system in which different bodies exercised legislative, executive, and judicial power, and in which all those bodies were bound by the rule of law. This theory of the separation of powers had an enormous impact on liberal political theory, and on the framers of the constitution of the United States of America.
Charles de Montesquieu
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the most influential thinkers during the Enlightenment in eighteenth century Europe. In his first work, Rousseau argues that the progression of the sciences and arts has caused the corruption of virtue and morality. This discourse won Rousseau fame and recognition, and it laid much of the philosophical groundwork for a second, longer work, The Discourse on the Origin of Inequality. The second discourse did not win the Academy’s prize, but like the first, it was widely read and further solidified Rousseau’s place as a significant intellectual figure. The central claim of the work is that human beings are basically good by nature, but were corrupted by the complex historical events that resulted in present day civil society.Rousseau’s praise of nature is a theme that continues throughout his later works as well, these works caused great controversy in France and were immediately banned by Paris authorities. Rousseau fled France and settled in Switzerland, but he continued to find difficulties with authorities and quarrel with friends. The end of Rousseau’s life was marked in large part by his growing paranoia and his continued attempts to justify his life and his work.