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Multicultural Counseling: African Americans
Transcript of Multicultural Counseling: African Americans
Marissa Leone History
Group role plays
Q&A Agenda History After Emancipation Acts: free but poor, mistreated in White establishments, racial discrimination
-to counter this, blacks created their own communities
1800's: black organizations to fight slavery and community growth
Forced to segregate
Civil War (1861-1865)--Abraham Lincoln-Emancipation Proclamation
-freeing slaves in southern states
-process of national African-American identity formation
Jim Crow Laws: 1876-1965 "separate but equal"
-treatment that was inferior to those of Whites
-economic, social and educational disadvantages
-violence and intimidation towards blacks causing blacks to fear Whites
-Black lacked protection
Racial terrorism-KKK, lynching
-over 20,000 killings....50 lynchers indicted only 4 were sentenced Slaves first arrived- Jamestown, VA 1619
1700- slaves were 10% of the population
-slaves developed their own family structure, customs etc with little contact from owners
-slaves had more privileges in cities
-Slaves in the form of personal servants in the north (2%) and plantation workers in the south (25%)
First Impressions= Whites are superior to Blacks The beginning of Change: Civil Rights Movement -end legal separation, end racial violence, police brutality, equal employment/education
-slow process, boycotts, protests, marches
Bayard Rustin Black Solidarity Black history- attempts to reverse centuries of ignorance
-a struggle to change assumptions
-corrects myths, stereotypes
-why is black history month just in February? African American Inequality Social Justice Implications Median income for Blacks was $32,068 vs. $54,620 Whites 27.4% of African Americans living in poverty vs. 9.9% of Whites 39.1% of African American children vs. 12.4% of White children 21% of Blacks did not have health insurance vs. 12% of Whites Infant mortality rate among Blacks was 2.4 times the rate of Whites Obesity affects 49.5% of Blacks vs. 34.3% of Whites African Americans with Bachelors Degrees make 20% less than Whites with the same degree (DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, & Smith, 2011) (DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, & Smith, 2011) (DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, & Smith, 2011) (Carnevale, Rose, & Cheah, 2011) (Flegal, Carroll, Kit, & Ogden, 2012) (MacDorman & Mathews, 2011) Multi-Phase Model of Psychotherapy, Counseling Human Rights, & Social Justice Chung & Bemak, 2012 Culture Family Among families headed by females, the rearing of children is often undertaken by a large number of relatives, older children, and close friends.
The extended family network provides emotional and economic support.Families are characterized by flexibility in family roles, strong kinship bonds, a strong work and achievement ethic, and strong religious orientation.
Kinship support diminishes risks of internalizing or externalizing problems behaviors in children and can ameliorate conditions such as poor parenting. Among low-income single mothers, many displayed substantial parenting involvement with their children and emphasized achievement, self-respect, and racial pride with their children
African American families have been able to instill positive self-esteem in their children by means of role flexibility.
Men and women value such behaviors as assertiveness; within a family, males are more accepting of women's work roles and are more willing to share in the responsibilities traditionally assigned to women. Family friends are commonly accorded the status and titles of blood relations. This broader, more African concept of what constitutes family and community, and the deeply rooted respect for elders that is part of African traditional societies may be the genesis of the common use of the terms like "aunt", "uncle", "brother", "sister", "Mother", and "Mama" when addressing other African-American people, some of whom may be complete strangers. Family Women demonstrate a "Strong Black Woman" image that includes pride in racial identity, self-reliance, and capability in handling challenges
Self-efficacy can be strength, excessive investment in meeting the expectations of such a role can lead to emotional suppression and difficulty expressing vulnerability or distress. Strong Black Women A popular way for African Americans to recall past struggles and express ethnic solidarity, faith, and hope for the future. ("Lift Every Voice and Sing") Written by James Weldon Johnson and John Rosamond Johnson in 1900Dance in the African tradition, and thus in the tradition of slaves, was a part of both every day life and special occasions. Music Art From its early origins in slave communities, through the end of the 20th century, African-American art has made a vital contribution to the art of the United States.
The Black Arts Movement of the 1960s and 1970s was another period of resurgent interest in African-American art. During this period, several African-American artists gained national prominence Cuisine The cultivation and use of many agricultural products in the United States, such as yams, peanuts, rice, okra, sorghum, grits, watermelon, indigo dyes, and cotton, can be traced to African influences.
African-American foods reflect creative responses to racial and economic oppression and poverty. Under slavery, African Americans were not allowed to eat better cuts of meat, and after emancipation many often were too poor to afford them. What is Transgenerational Trauma? - Negative psychosocial and emotional effects of the trauma are transmitted to subsequent generations through physiological, environmental, and social factors
– Absorbed into the culture and passed through generations from learned behavior.
-Examples of long term mass trauma: colonialism, slavery, war, genocide- Common among American Indian, Alaskan Native, African American populations How Does it Effect Subsequent Generations? - Maladaptive behaviors from victims effect their offspring and are indirectly transmitted through learned behavior, which perpetuates the cycle of trauma.
-“Vicarious Traumatization” – collective memory, storytelling and oral traditions of the primary victims.
- Children of traumatized parents exhibit symptoms of psychological problems such as: denial, depersonalization, isolation, memory loss, nightmares, hypervigilance, substance abuse, fixation on trauma, identification with death, survivor guilt and grief.
- Some studies have been conducted to see if and how physical ramifications (injuries, infectious and chronic diseases) may also persist through future generations. Implications For Counselors: - Implement interventions that integrate historical trauma theories, community competence and community empowerment
– holistic and culturally competent.
- Many cultures emphasize linking the past to the present. For these populations, emotional and psychological release from blame, shame, and guilty need to be stressed. References Carnevale, A. P., Rose, S. J., Cheah, B. (2011). The college payoff: Education, occupations, lifetime earnings. The Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. Retrieved from http://www9.georgetown.edu/grad/gppi/hpi/cew/pdfs/collegepayoff-complete.pdf
Chung, R. C-Y., & Bemak, F. P. (2012). Social justice counseling: The next steps beyond multiculturalism. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D., & Smith, J. C. (2011). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the united states: 2010. Retrieved from United States Census Bureau: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/p60-239.pdf
Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., Ogden, C. L. (2012). Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(5), 491-497. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.39
Fabre, G., & O'Meally, R. G. (1994). History and Memory in African-American Culture. New York:, NY: Oxford University Press.
Herskovits, M. (1990). The Myth of the Negro Past. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Hine, D. C. (2010). African-American odyssey: The combined volume. (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
MacDorman M. F, Mathews T. J. (2011). Understanding racial and ethnic disparities in u.s. infant mortality rates (NCHS data brief No. 74). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db74.
Sotero, M. (2006). A conceptual model of historical trauma: Implications for public health practice and research. Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice. 1, 93-108.
Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2012) Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice. (6 ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Kwanzaa Kwanzaa is observed each year from December 26 through January 1. Participants in Kwanzaa celebrations affirm their African heritage and the importance of family and community by drinking from a unity cup; lighting red, black, and green candles; exchanging heritage symbols, such as African art; and recounting the lives of people who struggled for African and African-American freedom (Hine, 2010) (Herskovits, 1990) (Hine, 2010) (Hine, 2010) (Sue & Sue, 2012) (Sue & Sue, 2012) (Fabre & O'Meally, 1994) (Sue & Sue, 2012) (Herskovits, 1990) (Fabre & O-Meally, 1994) (Sotero, 2006) (Sotero, 2006) (Sotero, 2006) 1955-1968 Importance of Black History