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Transcript of Socialization
What is Socialization?
It is a process by which an individual acquires attitudes, beliefs, and values of his or her culture. How an individual is developed or molded into a social being as member of a society is the result of socialization. Socialization is synonymous to enculturation.
Importance of Socialization
Human beings are helpless at birth. This is also true to mammals. All human infants are dependent upon others for their physical survivors. If an infant is not attended to, sooner the infants will suffer and eventually die. Infants are not endowed with those instincts (or unlearned forms of behavior) of other species. Take for example a newly hatched chick which is easily capable of providing for their own needs in a new environment. Without the outside social intervention like feeding or nurturing, the human infant is helpless.
Socialization: A Life-Long Process
Socialization is a life long process. Stage begins from infancy, to childhood to adolescence, adulthood, and finally old age. Each stage of the process, the individual occupies a certain
it plays in the corresponding environment.
The human contact isn't limited to the infants physical needs only but it is very much necessary for a healthy, social and psychological development. The social contact is a social experience. This social experience will have a lot of influence on the development of personality. The lack of social experience or no social contact with others can impair the individual's personality development to the extent that functioning well in a social relationship will be difficult.
Social status refers to the individual's rank in a particular social group at a specific time. Status can determined in two ways:
Ascribed Status - refers to a status that is assigned to a person at birth or perhaps at a later stage in his life. Example: Being the eldest son or the younger son.
Achieved Status - refers to a status acquired through an individual's personal effort or choice.
Example: A successful businessman like Mr. Henry Sy of SM Holdings.
Social role refers to the behavior patterns, obligations and privileges that are associated with and expected with a certain status. In a particularly conservative Filipino family, the younger brother or sister is expected to be obedient to the elder brother or sister and not to talk against the other; otherwise this is constructed as disrespect.
Gender and Sex Role in Socialization
Gender - refers to the social distinction, differences or expectations which are socially constructed in relation to real or assumed sex characteristics between male and female.
Sex - refers to the biological traits categorized as male and female. It is about the division of human beings into biological categories mentioned.
The Development of Self and Personality
The self (or social life) is acquired by young children through a process of social interaction and social activity. The process starts from early childhood even as a baby when parents attend to the baby's needs. The child learns that through crying, crying or other "baby gestures", these acts elicit responses from those around him. The child begins to think about himself and acts in response to how others respond to him.
Through the child's social contact with the parents or those around him, the child sees himself as an object in their social relations. Certain expectations and standards are to be learned and internalized by the child. Yet the child learns also that their are times when the expectations cannot be met and standards are deviated
Charles Horton Cooley: The "Looking Glass Self" Theory
Charles Cooley believed that individuals and their personalities are product of social interactions and influences. According to him, our attitudes, behaviors, and self-concepts develop from our interaction with others. As a result we develop a feeling about ourselves by imagining what others think about the way we look and act. Through this line Cooley develop the concept
looking glass self
. For Cooley the individuals awareness is a social development.
Three Major Elements:
a) our imagination of how other see us
b) our imagination of how others judge our appearance
c) the feeling of self that results from our imagination of the thoughts others have of us
The important aspect of looking glass self is how we see ourselves influenced by how we think others perceive us.
George Herbert Mead: The Social Self Theory
(Father of Social Behaviorism)
Influenced by evolutionary theory and the social nature of experience and behavior, Mead emphasized the natural emergence of the self and mind within the social order . He believed that the self emerges out of a social process or socialization in which the organism becomes self-conscious. This self consciousness comes about as a result of the organism's interaction with its environment. Like Cooley, he believed that the self is not resent at birth but is a social product that develops through socialization.
Erwing Goffman: The Dramturgical Approach
Goffman views social life as a stage where people interact with one another. People are viewed as members of the audience and as actors. In everyday life the parts that are played are the roles people play in their actual respective daily routines. Goffman's analysis of everyday interaction is by way of using the dramaturgical approach whereby he compares the behavior of people in a society to acting on a stage. People are acting out a script on society's (real life) expectation and even in making improvements in order to impress the audience. For example in a way a waiter behaves from his co-workers in the kitchen to costumers. You will notice how the roles shift from situation to another situation.
Sigmund Freud: The Psychoanalitic Viewpoint
According to Freud, the self is divided into three parts - the
. At first, the id dominates and has no sense of time, order or morality. It is always seeking for pleasure and consists of impulses and primitive drives. The ego is conscious and rational. The ego as segment of the self develops as the child realize that he or she is separate and distinct from other individuals. The superego or the conscience internalizes social ideas about right and wrong. It is the moral arm of the conscience. Freud believe that the superego is responsible in molding the individual's personality according to the societies expectations and it represses those impulses or act that are considered asocial or inappropriate.
Erik H. Erikson: Psychosocial Stages of Development
According to Erikson, there are eight psychological stages of ego development that integrate the psychological, physical and social aspects of the socialization process. Erikson notes that personality development develops as the ego progresses the eight stages. In every psychosocial stage, the individual grows and deals with crisis coming from physical changes taking place within the individual as well as from the social environment on which the individual must respond or adapt.
The eight stages are:
1st Stage: Basic trust vs mistrust. From birth to 2 years old. Infants are highly dependent on the mother or substitute. Infants trust those who meet their needs but they learn to mistrust if their is inconsistency.
2nd Stage: Autonomy vs shame. Occurs between 2-3 years old. When parents encourage independence, or indicate approval when children act on their own initiative and consistent on their discipline, the children will feel sure and do better in coping with situations. If parent are overprotective and tend to discourage of their owns children initiative, the children will be doubtful, and ashamed of their behavior.
3rd stage: Initiative vs guilt. Occurs between 4-5 years old. When parents give children freedom to explore, take time to answer questions, they encourage tendencies toward being initiative. Restricting children's activity may lead them to think that their questions are annoying and no sense at all - the children will develop guilt feeling.
4th stage: Industry vs inferiority. Occurs between 6-11 years old. If parents encourage children to make things and praise them, industry results. If parent are annoyed over children's attempts to do things, children develop a sense of inferiority.
5th stage: Identity vs role confusion. Occurs during adolescence. This is a stage crisis of adolescence. They face a crisis in finding their places in society. They ask the question: Who am I? What do I want be? They must integrate all their past in order to find their own sense of identity. If they cannot integrate their ealier experiences, they cannot form an ego identity. The inability to establish a sense of stability leads to role confusion.
6th stage: Intimacy vs isolation. Occurs in young adulthood. Ater identity is established, then the individual is able to form close contacts and relations with others. If no identity is established, he or she may develop a feeling of isolation.
7th stage: Generativity vs self-absorpyion. Occurs in middle age. Generativity is the concern for establishing and guiding the next generation. This is the ability to look beyond oneself. Those who are unable to engage in the process of guiding others stagnate and become victims of self-absorption.
8th stage: Integrity vs despair. Occurs in old age, At this stage, the aged looks at one's life as complete and yet recognizes its shortness and mortality.
Jean Piaget: Stages in Cognitive Development
He develop a theory that cognitive development occurs in stages. He identified four stages:
1) sensorimotor stage (birth-18 months)
2) preoperational stage (18 months-7 years)
3) concrete operational stage (7-11 years old )
4) formal operational stage (begins at about 11 years)
Agents of Socialization
The family is the most important agent in socialization. It plays an important role and has a special responsibility. It is usually the most influential group in the life of a child. It is also in the family that the formative years and the development of the self and one's personality have its crucial undertakings. From the family the child is given care, emotional support, medical attention, shelter, education and other basic support needs.
The school is a formal agent of socialization. Children weaned from home are then introduced into the society. It is the school where emotional and itellectual growths are formally forge. Here they learn the basic formal instructions in the 5R's of education which are reading, writing, arithmetic, rational thinking, and right conduct.
The peer groups are another very potential agent of socialization. As the child grows, the role of the family in socialization is gradually supplemented and at times replaced by the peer group. The peer group an informal grouping of two or more individuals, about the same age levels, neighborhood, school, or friends. Others call the peer group a gang or is commonly called barkada. This is a group where parents have no controls. Considering that they belong to about the same age level, they have their own "culture" and "language" distinct to them. A strong sense of camaraderie or belongingness pervades their relationship.
Another socializing events is the mass media. Mass media maybe in the form of print, broadcast, or electronic. Thus, almost everyone could be reached and influenced due to its tri-media system. The mass media is socializing primarily to inform, entertain and educate. It covers a wide field of interest and the whole society is its audience, that is, from children to adults.
Every society cannot remain static. That is why each society needs some forces that can move or influence it to reach its objectives. Religion is an agent of socialization that can assist in giving a society a sense of direction. Morals and values which are inherent in religion can give guidance about what is appropriate in terms of roles and behaviors of a society or indiviual.
The child progresses in the process of socialization. In the process, the individual continues socializing as he or she passes from childhood, adolescence, and into adulthood. Most likely the individual will join in the workplace. The feeling are asked and answers may come in the process of socializing in the workplace.
Schaefer (2001) notes that "social scientist have increasingly recognized the importance of of the state as an agent of socialization because of its growing impact on the life course". Furthermore, he observes, "traditionally, family members have served as the primary caregivers in our culture, but the 20th century, the family's protective function has steadily been transferred to outside agencies such as hospital, mental health clinics, and insurance companies. The government is much involved in child care and protection.
Deviant behavior refers to a behavior that does not conform to norms. These are behaviors that in some ways do not meet with the expectations of a group or of a society as a whole.
The following may help us understand our consideration of what deviant behavior is:
1. In terms of time. The meaning of deviance changes through the years. For example, it was socially unacceptable to see girls drinking beer or teenagers or women smoking. All these are heavily considered now as deviant behavior.
2. In terms of place or geography. Being deviant varies according to geographic area. Open prostitution as an example is deviant in the Philippines but not in some countries.
3. In terms of subculture. Subcultures based on class, race and nationality is another factor in understanding the relativity of deviance. Subcultures hold at least some different norms. Deviant behavior varies from subculture to another subculture.