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Copy of Digestive of a Penguin

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Sung Moon

on 13 March 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Digestive of a Penguin

Digestive System of a Penguin (Part 2 on Slide 26) (Part 3 Slide 40) V.S v.s The Crop Penguins have crops ( special pouches in their throat) that they use to store food in for their babies. They fill their crop with shrimp or fish and then take it back to their nest and give it to their babies. The humans don't have anything like the crop. Humans can't store food and then regurgitate it so their children can eat. Humans have and esophagus which is a tube that runs from the mouth to the stomach immediately. The esophagus takes food down to the stomach where is is store and digested. Penguins take turns when eating. The male penguin travels to eat while the female sits on the egg. When the male returns, the female travels to go eat and the male sit on the egg.

The male is nourished by the female but if the female doesn't return with food when the egg is hatched, the male penguins produces 'penguin milk' from his crop and the regurgitates it for the baby chick. The proventriculus is a part of the stomach in penguins that digests the enzymes the food has and it also passes food from the crop to the gizzard. The proventriculus also starts to digest the fish and crustaceans before it passes to the gizzard. The proventriculus is also the second part of the penguin stomach. The Proventriculus Humans don't have a proventriculus. We humans don't have separate organ just to digest the enzymes and the food before it goes to the stomach. The human stomach is a muscular organ located on the left side of the upper abdomen. The stomach receives food from the esophagus. The food is then stored and digested. Most nutrients are digested in the stomach. The Gizzard The third part of the penguin "stomach" is the gizzard. The gizzard grinds and crushes fish and crustaceans into smaller components that are more easily digested by penguins. The gizzard has a thick muscular wall. The internal surface of the gizzard is similar to sandpaper because it contains a grainy substance known as koilin. Humans don't have gizzards. We have our mouths, our mouths chew our food for us. Once we swallow chewed food it goes through the esophagus and from the esophagus it goes to the stomach. The penguins have their food pass through the gizzard because they have no teeth to crush the food. The gizzard helps the penguin because it allows the digestion process to go real smooth. The digestive system of penguins needs to be as light and efficient. The digestive system includes the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard, proventiculus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine. The beak, salivary gland, liver and pancreas are also important features.

The food travels down all the different areas of the digestive system and is broken down more as it travels. The Liver and Pancreas The liver produces and keeps bile, which is a collection of acids like pigments and cholesterol the are very important in the digestion and the absorption of fat. To reduce the acidity, the pancreas stashes sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the acid. Human liver is the largest solid organ in your body. The liver does many jobs and here are some:

It cleans your blood.

It produces an important digestive liquid called bile.

It stores energy in the form of a sugar called glycogen. The pancreas is an organ that is located in the abdomen. It is part of the digestive system and produces important enzymes and hormones that help break down foods. Humans and Penguins both have pancreas and liver and they have the some of the same functions and responsibilties Part 2 The male’s lives in the worst condition while he is looking after the egg for months while the females look for food.

By the time the females return the males may have lost 40% of their body weight.
After the egg is given to the female, the male has to walk around 125 miles to get to sea and eat. It takes the male around 115 days to walk that much. The penguin has to maintain a steady temperature of 38°C and even though the penguin lost a lot of weight from the stored body fat some penguins maintain it but others can’t. In order to survive the penguins march in a huddle they also take care of the egg in a huddle to conserve heat. The same goes with the female penguin, it lose 1/3 of its weight while giving birth and has to walk around 3-4 months in order to get food. In order to survive they need to maintain body temperature. It also relates to natural selection. The penguins that are skinny and have less body fat die it they cannot maintain a body temperature, even if they are huddled together while walking.

The penguins that are big and have lots of fat can maintain body temperature and can also survive for longer. The crop helps the newborn chicks survive. If the female doesn’t return in time then, then both the dad and baby are hungry. But the dad stores a liquid called ‘penguin milk' in his crop which he feeds to the chick and that also the chick to live around 1-2 days.

In that time, the mom comes back and regurgitates food for the chick while the dad is walking to see. While at sea some penguins die because of walrus and other predators and one penguin dad or mom dead means that the chick is also going to die.

The dad or mom would have to abandon the chick and the chick will die of starvation because the dad or mom would have to feed themselves. The proventiculus helps the penguin
survive because it helps the digestion
of the food and after that the penguin add body
fat which allows them to survive in harsh
weather conditions. The gizzard has stones which allows the penguin's food to soften. The penguin doesn't have teeth like like us humans so, the gizzard helps the digestion of food. Once food is digested body weight and fat is added and that allows them to live in bad weather conditions. It also allows the digestion process of food to go smoothly. Part 3 The penguins need to eat food while they are in Dagobah. The food in Dagobah may be too big or too small. If its small the penguins can eat it like they always do. First, it passes through the proventiculus then, to the gizzard and then to the stomach. Eating small is not what the penguins want to do. Some penguins eat 8kg of food and don’t eat for another 3 months. The penguins like eating fast and big, that way they can eat a lot more food because its sent through 2 organs and then, to the stomach. But the penguin can’t because of the different organs the food needs to go through in order to be digested. First the food is sent to the crop. The penguins have a choice whether to save the food for later, or to pass to the next organ, which is the proventiculus. The proventiculus starts the digestion of the food; it digests its enzymes. After that, it is passed to the gizzard where it is crushed into little chunks so the rest of the digestion process can be done easily. Since penguins don’t have teeth the swallow the food whole and it allows the rock to go to the gizzard and it stays there. The rocks cannot be digested and sent to the stomach. Because of this, the rocks help crush the food while it’s in the gizzard. After the gizzard, it goes to the stomach where it is fully digested. This process of digestion can take hours to days, it depends on how much the penguins eat. As I said before the penguins like eating a lot at once so they don’t have to eat continually. The digestion process of the penguin is just too slow and in Dagobah there is a lot of water, which is where fish and shrimp live.

But shrimp and fish is not a full satisfying meal. Even if it was they would have to look for a lot of fish and shrimp and that would take a long time. The penguins need to eat fast and digest fast to build fat which allows them to maintain body temperature. PENGUIN 1 PENGUIN 1, ORGAN 1

The penguin haS adapted in Dagobah and the proventiculus is gone. The penguins have adapted in a way that the proventiculus is gone and the gizzard crush the food but, it also starts to digest the enzymes before it is crushed. The gizzard has adapted to do two jobs in the time of one. Making the gizzard do two functions allows the digestion process of the penguin to go quicker and the penguins will eventually eat more which is good. PENGUIN 1, ORGAN 2 The penguin’s gizzard is not working well. The rocks have crumbled and have no power to crush the food anymore. The penguins need something to crush the food. After years of adapting in Dagobah, the penguins have adapted have rocky material in the mouth.

This could be teeth or not but it crushes the food and allows the penguins digestion process to go smoother. The rocky substances are in the mouth and basically act like teeth. PENGUIN 2, ORGAN 1

The King penguin has adapted in Dagobah. The King penguin couple are used to give their kid food from the crop. The penguins have noticed that there is food storage in Dagobah and the food in the crop has to feed the adult penguins.

The adult needs to fend for himself and in order to do that he leaves the crop empty. Since the food storage the child needs to get his own food and does not receive any food from his parents. The crop is not used and after many years it no longer exists in the penguins. PENGUIN 2 PENGUIN 2, ORGAN 2

The food in Dagobah has very little nutrients. The king penguin can survive with low amount of nutrients but one organ in his body is not needed. The proventiculus which starts the digestion of nutrients is not needed in Dagobah. Since no nutrients are in the food, the proventiculus is not being used correctly. After years of eating food with no nutrients, the proventiculus in the penguin is gone because there was no demand for it. PENGUIN 3 PENGUIN 3 The Gentoo penguin couples were taking care of their baby egg but once it came out it couldn’t handle the temperature and died. This started happening to every couple in Dagobah. The crop which was supposed to feed them was not being used. The crop was just another organ and they did not need it. After many years of no use, the crop was no in the Gentoo penguins. The Gentoo penguinS gizzard weren’t working well; there weren’t any sharp rocks. Because of the gizzard not functioning well, the penguins have to smash the food before it gets in. The beak will allow the penguins to poke at the food several times and then swallow little pieces of food which ultimately makes the digestion process easier for the penguins. Works Cited

WEBSITE: “Digestive System of a Penguin.” GI Histology. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 May 2012. <http://dmclf.org/biology/histology5.html>.

WEBSITE: “Emperor Penguin.” The Animal Files. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 May 2012. <http://www.theanimalfiles.com/birds/penguins/emperor_penguin.html>.

WEBSITE: “Emperor Penguins.” Slide Share. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 May 2012. <http://www.slideshare.net/guest2858c7/penguins>
.
WEBSITE: “Penguin Anatomy.” Gastrointestinal Anatomy. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 May 2012. <http://dmclf.org/biology/anatomy7.html>.

BOOK: The Penguin encyclopaedia of nutrition. New York, NY: Viking, 1985. Print.

BOOK: The Penguin encyclopaedia of nutrition. New York: Scholastic, 2004. Print.

WEBSITE: “PENGUINS ADAPTATIONS FOR AN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT.” Sea World. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 May 2012. <http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/penguin/adaptations.htm>.
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