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Transcript of INTRODUCTION
Framework for Dealing with Risks
AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM
Airline reservation systems were first introduced in the late 1950s as relatively simple standalone systems to control flight inventory, maintain flight schedules, seat assignments and aircraft loading. The modern airline reservation system is comprehensive suite of products to provide a system that assists with a variety of airline management tasks and service customer needs from the time of initial reservation through completion of the flight.
One of the most common modes of travel is traveling by air. Customers who wish to travel by air nowadays have a wide variety of airlines and a range of timings to choose from. Nowadays competition is so fierce between airlines that there are lot of discounts and a lot of luxuries given to customers that will give an edge to that particular airline.
The World Wide Web has become tremendously popular over the past few years, and currently most of the airlines have made provision for online reservation of their flights. The Internet has become a major resource for people looking for making reservations online without the hassle of meeting travel agents. Our Project intends to serve these purposes. It intends to check all the available airline databases and return a string of results, which can help them in their travel plans.
The main aim of this project is to develop the software for the process of reserving airway ticket should lead to increased efficiency and reduced drawbacks which were present in the previous procedure of airline reservation. The software should be error controlled both logically as well as in syntactic manner.
• To design a user friendly interface that suits the users.
• To complete the system according to the schedule.
• To produce technical reports that documents the phases, tasks and deliveries in the project.
• To develop a system that removes the flaws in the current system.
Analysis project characteristics
• The system advances it tends to become more product driven, although the underlying objective always remains and is respected.
• The project has to be user friendly and authorized.
• All the risks and the threats are analysed.
• User requirements are taken into account while implementation.
• Development methodology is selected.
• Estimation of the resources is done.
Identify the activity risks
All the risks that are possible are identified and analyzed. Proper measures are taken to check and prevent the risks. If the risk is happened respective steps are taken to minimize the loss. This will be discussed in detail later.
The best people suitable for the job are selected.The staff available for the project are identified and are allocated tasks. If required plans are revised and estimates are taken into account. Data collection ,front end design , back end design and testing all these tasks need best and efficient staff. Hardware,
Software, workstation etc will be the resources required.
Feasibility study is to check the viability of the project under consideration. Various aspects of the project is viewed under consideration, to come up with a conclusion.
Description of the current situation
Current situation is, people surf for the flight, both one way, round way and multicity stop, and has both guest and user login facility. The user login has facility of a dashboard, where all of ones booking history are recorded.
The website also provides many other offers, and packages for trip and vacations.
Although the leading websites are so good, it’s almost difficult
to bring out flaws in them, still to our experience and a small survey shows some UI flaws, so in addition to normal airline reservation system, we will have some UI changes to make it more user friendly and make it more reliable, and faster to handle the huge traffic.
Business and financial aspects
-With the manual system the operating cost of the system is about 60 Lacks P.M... This cost comprises salary of 25 people, stationary, building rent, electricity, water, telephone etc. But with the new system this reoccurring cost comes out to be about 20 lacks P.A. Hence the new system is economically feasible, as we will have IVR system, which would cut down much people, and human error.
- We will have frequent flyer criteria, which will allow the user to cancel tickets free of charge, or will have luggage limit increased, or discounts on onboard items.
- For guest users, some redemption codes will be provided to collect experience points to collect any future offers same goes for members, but with elevated points.
-The new system requires only 6 trained person to work with the system and in overall 10 people per office are sufficient. So we will identify 6 best people from existing system and train them. As our existing system is purely manual, so we need a onetime investment of Rs. 4 lakhs for the purchase of 10 computers, AC and networking etc. It requires 20 Lacks PM as an operating cost. With the above details our system is technically feasible as after investing 24 Lacks in a year, the company is still saving Rs 25 Lacks PM.
-Many time, it so happens we have to books tickets abroad, so we will have a currency converter widget in the website.
-Currency format set in accordance to the country assigned to one’s email address, we will make provision, that local area would be accessed to set the currency format and time.
-Normal website doesn’t allow to choose seats, so we will have seat choosing facility, in a widget based drop-down UI
-This may lead to unemployment issues, so management must take measures, to handle this situation.
: This would include, buying of servers and domain and .
: 25$ per year – based on bandwidth, this will give a 3 GB bandwidth ,but as our website will be commercialized, extra bandwidth is required to handle huge traffic. But as such for development 3 GB is enough.
: Server will be distributed, so installation of server will be costly initially, each server will cost around 2500$, which gives 3tb of space, so we would need about 50 of them in total, so 125000$ is required for smooth running of the website.
For operational, extra bandwidth will toll for 15$ per 3tb per year, and if large traffic increases, more servers are needed to be installed, other than that maintenance would cost nearly 5 lakh per 2 months.
: From the above study, it can be concluded, it would be less error prone and much reliable in terms of updating things properly. People can book tickets anywhere on the go and as well as cancel it, it will show the credited amount to its account, and for guest user , cash will be credited back to bank.
Recommendation: This project is feasible to go with.
a. To identify the `activities and schedule them accordingly
b. To Ensure that the apt. resources will be available precisely when required
c. To avoid different activities competing for the same resources at the same time
d. To re-plan the project
OBJECTIVES OF ACTIVITY PLANNING:
• Feasibility Assessment:
• Our project is feasible with in time period of 20 weeks and given resources
• Resource Allocation:
• Resources have been allocated in the most effective way
• Detailed Costing:
• The detailed costing has been explained in feasibility study
• Targets has been set and achievement against the target is the best way of motivating staff.
• We provide incentives for the best performance.
• We encourage the ideas which faster innovation.
• We handle large projects where we involve staff from different departments allowing them to coordinate with each other effectively
• Activity based approach
TASK DURATION AND DEPENDENCIES
IDENTIFYING CRITICAL PATH:
• Longest duration of the project is called critical path
• Any delay in the critical path will delay the completion date of the project.
Significance of critical path is :
• In managing the activities pay attention in monitoring the activities on CP so that delay or resource unavailability may be detected and corrected
• To reduce the overall duration of the project it is CP we must shorten.
1.) User Interface and software might not meet the customer’s expectations.
2.) Budget might exceed from the initially planned budget
3.) Developers might built completely or partially wrong properties and functions of the software.
4.) Developing team might not be competent enough. Personal shortfalls of developers may result to catastrophic effects.
5.) Environmental risks. Examples: not much space to work, unsupportive peers.
6.) Implementing “neat features” which are not asked for by customers, also known as gold plating.
7.) Faulty hardware and electronics may lead to hazards like fire etc.
8.) Heavy Traffic on the server can make the system very slow and render it almost useless.
9.) Unauthorized access to the system by hackers.
10.) Malware and Phishing attack.
Prioritizing the risks and ignoring the least likely and insignificant risks while focusing on the important one, some of these risks are:
i) Late Delivery of project: Not really possible to control it.ii)Production costs overshooting: Almost certain to happen
iii)Work Environment Risks: Can be curbed down but not totally removed.iv) Heavy Internet Traffic
Avoiding activities altogether to eliminate the possibility of a risk:
Avoid booking non-refundable tickets when not likely to travel.
Avoid booking tickets online when there is heavy internet traffic.
Avoid using cheap hardware components.
Use legacy system.
Always have a backup team.
Risk Reduction & Mitigation:
It attempts to reduce the likelihood of risks. Some of the ways are:
i) Recruiting qualified and trained staff.
ii) Multiple cost and time estimation techniques should be used.
iii) Prototyping should be done while developing UI.
Iv) Inspections should be planned at every stage
Risk mitigation is the action taken to ensure that the impact of the risk is lessened when it occurs
All components of the software should be insured.
There must always be a backup storage and system.
Large, unmanageable risks can be further broken down into small risks that are more likely to be managed
Outsourcing risk to another person or organization
Covers Risks such as:
Database information loss
In case of software failure or damage , it can be covered by the insurance company.
Database corruption is handled by the administrator & well organised organisations.
Security issues can be handled by anti-spyware, antivirus, cryptographic software.
To decide the risk action, cost effectiveness of risk reduction should be calculated:
Risk reduction leverage = (RE before – RE after) / cost of risk reductionwhere RE- Risk Exposure
Deciding Risk Actions
Three main concerns are :
• Staff selection
• Staff development
• Staff motivation
SELECTING THE RIGHT PERSON FOR THE RIGHT JOB
In the first step of selecting staff, right person should be
selected for the right job. For example for coding a person with
excellent coding knowledge is selected and for enquiry a person with
patience and good communication skills is selected. Every tasks has
specific requirements, staff should be selected according to the demand of the task.
Suitable candidates for taken for the job rather the eligible ones.
Instruction in the best methods
Training is the very important part in getting proper output from the employee.
Team leader should be always aware of needs of the team members. When the flow of
money is tight alternate sources of training is considered, but the is not abandoned.
Reviews and inspections are done regularly.
Staff has to be continuously motivated to keep the good flow of work going on.
For every task there can be competition so that all the groups compete to give
better work and the team members get along very fast. Giving raise in salaries
can also be a method of motivation. The working environment has to be hygiene
and the maintenance factor has to be satisfied by the staff members.
Continuous feedback has to be taken and the mistakes done have
to be rectified and not repeated.
The decisions are made consulting everyone
in the team and is discussed with the team leader.
The mutual decision is considered and given a go.
Brainstorming techniques are done to help the groups
for creative ideas. The problem is always presented to the experts.
The experts recommendation is taken into consideration and the decisions
are made accordingly.
Health and safety
Our management is committed to safety policy.
Job description includes the duties related to safety.
Staff are regularly consulted about their health.
Alternate plans should be maintained to replace a member
of a team in case of health issues so that it would not affect the work.