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Learning

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by

Andrea Greth

on 15 November 2018

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Transcript of Learning

Learning
Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
Russian Physiologist - studied digestion
Accidentally discovered Classical Conditioning
Conditioned Dogs to salivate at ringing bell
The Elements
* Unconditioned Stimulus(US)
Stimulus that naturally causes a specific response
* Unconditioned Response (UR)
Response naturally caused by a stimulus
* Neutral Stimulus
stimulus that has no prior response connection
* Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Neutral stimulus pared with a US, that causes a desired response when presented alone
* Conditioned Response (CR)
A response that is caused by the CS alone
The Experiment
A response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formally neutral stimulus
Apply the principles of Classical Conditioning t0 the video clip.
Apply the principles of Classical Conditioning to this video clip.
John Watson
"Give me a dozen healthy infants allow me to control their environment, and I can turn them into whatever I want"
Classical Conditioning
with Humans
Watson's Study with Baby Albert
*Goal: Condition an infant to fear a white rat

*Elements:
US - loud noise
UR - Albert cries
CS - white rat
CR - Albert cries

*Results: Success
Stimulus Discrimination - fear only white rat
Stimulus Generalization - fear white fluffy things
Mary Cover Jones
*First Behavioral Therapist
*Developed method to unlearn fears
Counter Conditioning
Works best with children
Gave the children candy while bringing the white rate closer to the child
Desensitization Therapy
*Developed by Joseph Wolpe
*Treatment for anxiety and fear
*Cannot be fearful and relaxed at the same time
*Teaches individuals to relax in fearful or anxious situations
Additional Terms
* Stimulus Generalization
Respond to all ringing sounds
* Stimulus Discrimination
Only respond to a dinner bell
* Extinction
Dogs stops responding to bell because US is never paired with bell after initial pairing
* Spontaneous Recovery
Response to bell appears at random after extinction
* Higher Order Pairing
Bell paired with black square
Dogs salivate at black square

Discovering Psychology Video: Learning
http://www.learner.org/series/discoveringpsychology/08/e08expand.html
Fears / Dislikes
* Developing Fears
Preparedness - predisposed to develop a read to certain stimuli (survival)
Contra preparedness - other stimuli not
* Taste Aversion
Conditioned to avoid certain foods
Can happen with only one pairing
Operant Conditioning
Learning where behavior is followed by a reward or punishment
Edward Thorndike
* Instrumental Learning
* Cat in the Puzzle Box
* Law of Effect
Learning = behavior + Consequences
B.F. Skinner
* Coined Operant Conditioning
* Focus on Reinforcements
* Skinner box
* Explained superstitions
Reinforcement
encourages behaviors
Types
Ability to Use
* Primary Reinforcement
Example - pizza
* Secondary Reinforcement
Example - money
Token Economy
Method
* Positive Reinforcements
Add pleasant stimulus
Example - complete chores for money
* Negative Reinforcements
Avoid / Stop unpleasant stimulus
Escape and Avoidance Learning
Example - Drive speed limit to avoid ticket
Schedules of Reinforcement
* Continuous - every time reward given
Ex: vending machine
* Fixed Ratio - rewarded for set amount of actions
Ex: Buy 3 shirts get 1 free
* Variable Ratio -rewarded for unknown amount of actions
Ex: Slot machines
* Fixed Interval -rewarded after a set time
Ex: Weekly Exam
* Variable Interval - rewarded after unknown time
Ex: Pop Quiz


Punishment
Discourages a behavior
Types
* Positive Punishment
Add something unpleasant to the situation
Ex: Must wash the car because room not clean

* Negative Punishment
Take away something pleasant
Omission Training
Ex: Grounded because room not clean
Impact on Behavior
* Effective If
Swift - occur soon after behavior
Must be sufficient without cruelty
Must be consistent

* Drawbacks
Does not teach correct behavior
Resulting unpleasant emotion can deter learning
May suggest inflicting pain is justified
Learned Helplessness
Additional Concepts
* Discrimination
* Generalization
* Extinction
* Spontaneous Recovery
* Shaping
Reinforce steps to behavior
Ex: Brushing Teeth
*Chaining
link behaviors
Ex: Obstacle course


* Seligman & Maier Study
Round 1
Group A - dogs on platform received shock and pressed lever to stop it
Group B - dogs on platform received shock with no escape
Round 2
Both groups could avoid shock
Only Group A took steps to avoid the shock
Cognitive Learning
Learning that is not directly observable
Latent Learning
* Learning occurs before we realize it
* Not immediately reflected in behavior
* Develop Cognitive Maps
* Edward Tolman - rat maze study
Insight
*Rapid learning when concepts clink into place
* Kohler's Chimp Study
* Epstein's Pigeon Study
Social Learning Theory
* Albert Bandura
Bob doll Study
* Learning by observing others
Vicarious Reinforcement / Punishment


https://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/pavlov/index.html
Try Conditioning Pavlov's Dog
https://www.simplypsychology.org/tolman.html
Full transcript